- Introduction to Criminal Justice
- Crime & Policy
- Issues of Law
- Law Enforcement
- Court System
- Community Corrections
- Institutional Corrections
- Juvenile Justice
- Digital Stories
Welcome to Introduction to Criminal Justice.
This course is designed around four key themes.
1. The field of criminal justice is interdisciplinary and shares elements from criminology, sociology, law, history, psychology, and poitical science.
2. Criminal justice involves public policies that are developed within the framework of the democratic process.
3. The concept of a social system is an essential tool for analyzing the way criminal justice is practiced.
4. American values, the foundation on which criminal justice in a democracy is based.
In this course students are provided a strong foundation of information about the criminal justice system and it's primary components. It is my aim to provide both the essential content and the critical tools involved in understanding the criminal justice system. I maintain this course site and continually up-to-date the material and work to make the content appealing. I make a vast course resource available to you the students in the lecture bibliographies. You are directed to original sources and databases that augment information being presented. This course also includes a comparative perspective which describes a component of the criminal justice system in another country. I hope you will find this course a valuable learning experience.
Dr. Michael Thompson
Kyle D. Braun
Introduction to Criminal Justice
18 November 2015
Policies are intended to assist police in their job by helping to ensure officers’ safety, as well to provide a uniformity to how an officer is supposed to react in certain situations. Occasionally, a restrictive and potentially fatal, or just nonsensical policy is put into place. I will show how some of these policies probably originated, and why they could be fatal to officers and those civilians around them, and just a brief glimpse at how to help prevent bad decisions.
Many times a policy starts when one officer makes a mistake, and the leaders overreact and attempt to protect the entire department by forcing them to prevent that possibility. The solutions though, can be inane and useless, as well as leaving the officer open to other problems. For instance, a military police officer accidentally dropped his cell phone while he was driving across the base. Highly distracted as he attempted to find it by feeling around on the floor, he crashed into a landed jet. This was obviously a stupid and probably rare accident that may have required a memo about paying attention while driving, a public reprimand to serve as a warning to others, or even possibly a policy limiting cell phone use. Instead of this reaction, however, the powers-that-be decided to require their personnel to get out of their vehicle for ten minutes for every half hour that they spent in their vehicle. This can also come from a situation that policy forces an officer into, and then he is left with the fallout of his “lesser of two evils” decision that he had to make. If policy has them engage in car chases, and bans shooting at moving vehicles, officers will be questioned why they didn’t end the chase sooner, because the suspect had a several ton weapon that he was using. But if policy allows them to shoot at vehicles, officers will be asked why they shot because the suspect was “unarmed.”
Some of these policies are inanely annoying but some of these are actively harmful, either by restricting what they can do or by putting them in compromising situations. An example of the first one is a policy that restricts the use of flashlights as melee weapons unless lethal force is required. In a normal circumstance, yes, a police officer should and will probably go for his baton first. But, in a fight most plans are the first things destroyed making this an annoyingly restrictive policy, and possibly a danger if an officer cannot get to his baton fast enough even though his flashlight is already in his hand. A compromising situation that policy forces an officer into is how spike strips are deployed. An officer was killed when a runaway driver intentionally ran him over. Though spike strips are one of the best ways to stop a runaway driver and vehicle, they should be deployed where the officer has cover to deploy the strips at the last second so the perpetrator has a very little chance to run away, or to attempt to run the officer over. A similar policy prohibits backup guns while on duty, even though having backups is always a good idea, and having the backups have saved officers’ lives before.
While these are a few rare examples, it only takes one bad policy to kill an officer. No amount of caution will ever prohibit bad decisions and thus bad policies, there are ways to limit how many bad decisions come into power. Every manager should communicate with those under them, and ensure that their officers have no difficulty talking to them and informing them of issues or non sequiturs in the managers’ reasoning. Better communication is one of the only ways to help improve decision making.http://www.policemag.com/blog/patrol-tactics/story/2009/06/stupid-policies-are-costing-us-on-multiple-fronts.aspx
November 18, 2015
Crime and Policy
There are all types of crimes that can be committed in this world, some well known crimes consist of larceny/theft, burglary, motor vehicle theft, aggravated assault, and robbery. Now, living in a world where all this horrible stuff doesn't take place would be nice but just isn't possible. Simply because there are bad people in this world. As long as there's people in this world there will be crimes and offenses committed. So by crimes being made there needs to be punishment equal to that crime. Here's where the policy aspect comes into play. There must be laws and policies made that will 'even out' the wrong doings.
So once the crime is committed and the criminal is caught there is a specific order of policies that are followed to enforce the punishment thoroughly. Each place has its own way of doing what needs done in an orderly fashion. From states to counties across the world there are many ways that the locals do what they do to get the job done.
To get the job done there has to be protocol and rules to follow. These policies are in place to help and be beneficial but are sometimes an obstacle that must be worked around and can cause trouble. But even tough at times is a necessity.
It seems weird that the rules and policies that are supposed to make life easier tend to make it all more complicated and difficult. But as law enforcement varies and advances they have a significant impact on crime rates. The finding that increased detection rates have a strong impact in deterring crime implies that long or increased prison sentences may not be the only way to prevent crime. In view of that, there is some justification for the serious concerns that have been expressed about the cuts to the police budget. Would lowered policing expenditure lead to a lowered detection rate and hence increased crime? yes, the perception that police are stretched may encourage criminals to commit more crime which would stretch the police.
Sexting is a major issue in today’s justice system involving teens. One in five teens has sent sexually suggestive, nude, or semi-nude text messages by either phone or the internet. That’s 20% of teens sending inappropriate photos of themselves to others! Sexting is sending sexually explicit images and texts by electronic means. Often, those involved in sexting are teens under the age of 18. Because of anti-child-pornography laws, sexting can be even more serious when images are of children. Teens and adults need to understand that sexting can be a crime carrying harsh legal consequences. Teens are usually pressured by their peers or manipulated into sending these messages.
They are naive about the ramifications of their decisions. They can also be exposed to pedophiles or sexual predators. Not many teens know that sexting is not only a crime, it is actually a felony. The person who participates is in possession of child pornography. The result can be a prison sentence, fines, or requirement to register as a sex offender. Participants can be prosecuted under state as well as federal law. What can be done about this? Well, here are some things that might help keep sexting teens out of the juvenile justice system.
First, young people need to be educated about appropriate internet and phone use. With children being involved in sexting as young as the age of eight, this education needs to start at a very young age. Second, parents need to be aware of how their children are using their phones, what internet sites they are on and the legal problems that can result from sexting. Parental control computer software and applications can be installed that can provide a safety net for young people using phones and the internet. Having “Safe2Tell” as a resource in the state of Colorado recently led to the awareness of a sexting situation in a Colorado school system. Safe2Tell is a program that is run by the Colorado Office of the Attorney General. Someone realized what was happening was wrong and let the authorities know. As a result those involved are awaiting the decision of the District Attorney regarding prosecution. Athletes on the football team involved have already been penalized by not being allowed to play in sporting events. Separating the victims from the perpetrators is not always easy to do.
Those who see these photos but don’t do anything to stop the spread of them should be prosecuted, as well as those who sext. The recipients of these photos are usually other teens. There are pedophiles who lure young people into participating in sexting without an awareness they are actually communicating with an adult. Victims should not be punished if they were forced or coerced, it is a form of sexual abuse. If young people are punished and they were manipulated into doing it without the original instigator being brought to justice, abuse might continue with more victims suffering. Because of current laws, after authorities have seen the photos of the victim, they cannot always completely eliminate the photos from the internet. Current laws have not kept pace with ever changing technology. Victims can develop depression and other mental health problems. Trained therapists and counselors can provide service to those impacted. Parties involved in sexting can suffer long term consequences even after they have come forward, like when they apply for college or a job. So it turns out that you can get prosecuted for child pornography, it can hurt everyone involved even after the incident. It’s important to be aware of sexting and if you receive a sext report it to the proper authorities right away!
Intro to Criminal Justice
Issues of Law
A major issue in America’s justice system today is police brutality. Police are using excessive force in law enforcement matters with the general population. The behavior of excessive force is usually physical but it also includes officers verbally attacking or psychologically intimidating individuals. Law enforcement officers are meant to provide a secure environment for citizens and to protect their rights, but instead they are the ones who are committing the crimes toward individuals.
Police brutality is an issue that can affect anyone, but it is usually targeted at minority groups. Black people are the main target of this violence compared to any other racial group. In a USA Today analysis of seven years of FBI data, there are findings that about a quarter of the 400 annual deaths reported to federal authorities by local police departments were the result of white-on-black shootings. In 2013, 92% of all people arrested in Ferguson, Missouri were black.
Matters of police brutality are increasing instead of decreasing. There is a direct link between racially discriminatory policing and police brutality. If we as a society don’t learn to accept all races and ethnic groups, we will never progress and this violence will only get worse.
Young black men are the main target of this violence. In terms of suspects under the age of 21 who were killed by the police, 18% were black suspects and only 8.7% were white suspects. In addition to police violence, the Urban Institute has estimated that white-on-black homicides in states with Stand Your Ground laws are 354% more likely to be ruled justifiable than white-on-white homicides. A Stand Your Ground law is one that authorizes an individual to protect and defend their life and limb against a threat or perceived threat. This means that those with preconceived notions about the threat of those who are black or another race unlike their own, will be justified in committing bodily harm or even the death of another person because they perceived them as a threat.
The shooting of Michael Brown on August 9, 2014, in Ferguson, Missouri is a prime example of police brutality based upon racial profiling. Michael Brown, an 18-year-old African-American, was fatally shot by Darren Wilson, a 28-year-old white Ferguson police officer. The shooting took place after Brown reportedly stole a box of swisher cigars and pushed a store clerk, where he was accompanied with his friend Dorian Johnson. When Wilson saw the two suspects who matched the descriptions of those from the robbery, he backed up his cruiser and blocked them. After an altercation between Brown and Wilson occurred, Wilson’s gun was fired and Brown and Johnson fled, with Wilson in pursuit of Brown. All shots struck Brown in the front, with the possible exception of the two bullets fired in Brown’s right arm. Brown was unarmed and Wilson fired a total of twelve bullets, with at least six shots striking Brown. Wilson’s shooting of Brown was unjust and excessive. Wilson should have used proper means to apprehend Brown, instead of reaching for his gun and firing an unreasonable amount of shots at an unarmed 18-year-old. Had Brown not been a young African- American male, this amount of force would not have been used.
Police brutality is an issue we can no longer tolerate in society. Too many lives are being taken away unnecessarily as a result of police using excessive force on individuals. We must recognize all races and ethnic groups as equal and remove the stereotypes of those groups to make sure police will stop persecuting individuals based on those judgments. The only way to remove police brutality is to make sure law enforcement officials aren’t biased and to know when and what type of force is acceptable in regards to apprehending individuals.
Intro. to CJ.
““Law enforcement” is the term that describes the individuals and agencies responsible for enforcing laws and maintaining public order and public safety. Law enforcement includes the prevention, detection, and investigation of crime and the apprehension and detention of individuals suspected of law violation.
The BJS Law Enforcement Unit maintains more than a dozen national data collections covering federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies and special topics in law enforcement. Most data series are collected every 2 to 4 years and focus on aggregate or agency-level responses, meaning the information that is collected pertains to units, such as police departments, training academies, and crime labs. The data from law enforcement agencies provide national estimates for personnel, equipment, operations, agency policies, budgets, and job functions across agencies. The Law Enforcement Unit collects data on contacts between the public and police, special units within law enforcement agencies, and trends in police organization.” (Bureau of Justice Statistics, web. N/A.)
“Law Enforcement Exploring is the preeminent career orientation and experience program for young people contemplating a career in law enforcement or a related field in the criminal justice system. Its mission is to offer young adults, 14 and have completed the eighth grade and not yet 21 years old, a personal awareness of the criminal justice system through training, practical experiences, competition, and other activities. Additionally, the program promotes personal growth through character development, respect for the rule of law, physical fitness, good citizenship and patriotism. Law Enforcement Explorer Posts are sponsored by local, state and federal law enforcement agencies throughout the country. Law Enforcement Exploring is endorsed by numerous professional organizations, to include the International Chiefs of Police Association (IACP) and the National Sheriffs Association (NSA). Law Enforcement Exploring has been in existence since 1959 and is a well established and highly respected program that has served as a platform from which countless young adults have launched a successful career with local, county, state and federal law enforcement agencies. Many Chiefs of Police, Sheriffs, and heads of other types of law enforcement agencies credit Law Enforcement Exploring for providing them the foundation for a successful career.” (
Sources: "Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) - Law Enforcement." Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) - Law Enforcement. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2015.
"Law Enforcement Career Exploring for Young Men and Women Ages 14-20." RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2015.
My Picture: http://www.ulets.net/images/tmp1.jpg
Daniel A. Rogers
Dr. Michael Thompson
Criminal justice (9:25 – 10:40)
Sep 22. 2015
Types of Law Enforcment
There are many types of law enforcement in America many serve high functions in our everyday life others are called in specifically to do specific jobs. Never the less they all are important and require special training. Getting into the types of law informant, the jobs range from simple uniformed Police to specialized U.S. Secret Service special agents. Whatever it may be they are always there to protect and serve.
Uniformed officers or police men are on the streets and are the first to respond to domestic calls and emergency services. They work to protect the people from everyday harm and preform a service to their community and city. Sheriffs and deputies work on the county level and preform duties just of those like a police officer. Ununiformed police officers do the same this as uniformed officers just undercover and or in street clothing.
Detectives are usually in street clothing who collect facts and investigate many different types of crimes. They get to conduct cool activities such as raids or observe the activities of suspects. They usually investigate one specific type of crime which is homicides. FBI Agents usually do the same kind of activities. They are the government’s principal investigators, responsible for investigating violations of more than 200 categories of federal law and conducting sensitive national security investigations. Doing activities such as surveillance and investigating white color crimes along with doing stuff with the court systems.
Having the ability to work with the public and do things with the court and actually be out in the field is fun but what about the law enforcement agents that not everyone sees or knows about? The DEA is the Drug enforcement administration, they enforce the laws and also regulate the drugs in America illegal and legal. Working in the DEA would be pretty cool I would imagine doing stuff like undercover drug busts or just kicking in a door to room and arresting a person with like 1000 kilos of cocaine. Just being able to keep the community safe and other people from ruining their lives would be the greatest feeling. It’s like being a hero no one will ever guess that you did that for them.
The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives agents enforce and investigate crimes involving firearms and explosives as well as alcohol and tobacco tax regulations. Seeing as those are involved in a lot of crimes I can assume they are always busy and working constantly with police agencies. One agency called the Bureau of Diplomatic Security are known as special agents that combat terrorism just like homeland security. Terrorism is a threat that has risen in the past few years and has been a huge issue involving the United States.
Onto the cooler jobs the ones you see in the movies and everyone thinks or says “I want to be like him.” or “I want his job.” That’s right I’m talking about a secret service agent. Secret service agents do the cool stuff with all their training to take down the bad guys but in fact that’s not their job. The re mainly there to protect high up government representatives or people such as the president and vice president. Secret Service special agents also conduct investigations in crimes such as counterfeiting, checks or bonds, and fraudulent use of credit cards. They also protect the immediate families if the president and vice president.
Law enforcement extends way beyond just the boundaries of police officers and their agencies they can go to unheard of agencies with specific tasks or just more authority and priority than them. Being a police officer isn’t the only job you could be a us marshal or a detective or an animal cop or a DEA agent, the possibilities are endless with what you can do to protect and serve.
Kyle D. Braun
Introduction to Criminal Justice
(what not to do)
Common Mistakes That Rookie Police Officers make and How to Avoid Them
Every job has a period of time in which all new hires make mistakes. In most areas of employment these are generally harmless, but for new officers mistakes can have longer lasting consequences if they are not careful. Most departments have a program in place to help teach new hires but I have compiled here some of the most common mistakes you will be tempted to make and why they should be avoided.
So, let’s say that you have just graduated from the academy and have been hired on as an officer. One of your first instincts will be to show all of the long time veterans how much you learned and how well you can do your job. STOP! No one likes a know-it-all, and everyone needs to learn more. Also, every Police Department runs a little bit differently and you will need to learn how they operate, so you must first be willing to go out of your way to learn about your new job and to properly prepare yourself for it. You must start off by not being afraid to ask your new co-workers questions. Don’t just ask questions about where the coffee machine is. Find out how the bureaucracy works there, and how they fill out reports and file them. Even after you have hung up your hat at the end of the shift, your education doesn’t stop. If you were hired in a community that you are not familiar with, you have to buy a map of your area and study the map so you get to know the street names. This way, when you get called to an address, you will not need to look it up and your response time will be faster. When you finally make it home after you’ve studied your beat, then you need to read up on your department’s policies and procedures. The final thing to remember about your continuing education is that you will make mistakes. Everyone does, and everyone will make more mistakes. But some people cannot move past whatever mistake they have made. Your career will never be defined by your mistake but by what you do after your mistake.
As a new police officer, you will probably have difficulty building up your credibility or acting as professional as your uniform demands that you must. Showing up in the morning with a rumpled uniform with a cup of coffee, a donut, and a newspaper under one arm will not only hurt your image, because it is the stereotypical view of a worker that does not care about his job. Another easy way to tell how professional you are is to look at your reports. Spelling errors, and run-on sentences will hurt your reputation will all of your co-workers that read them, and will definitely hurt your credibility in a court room. When you show up to an emergency, your image should be such that civilians have no trouble listening to your directions.
The final and most difficult part of the job to get right is your people skills. The most fundamental rule for this is to never lie. They will figure it out, and few people ever trust a liar. Unlike your image, which is how people perceive you when they first see you, your communication skills affect your long-term relationship in your department or in your community. You must develop your decision making skills and then show confidence in your decisions so people will listen to you in an emergency. This ability to make people listen is called a command presence. One of the fastest ways to lose this presence with people who know you, especially with your co-workers, is by not treating them with respect. For example, as much fun as it would be to throw a crumpled summons through the car window of a belligerent citizen and charge him with littering when he throws it back, that would hurt your relationship with the community.
Every “breaking in” period is difficult, and confusing with many unavoidable mistakes, but there is an end in sight. Every difficulty that you go through getting to your goal will make you a better police officer in the end. Now, your long and very rewarding career awaits.
Dr. Michael Thompson
The new breed of cops.
Every kid loves to play cop and robbers and some of them grow up to be law enforcement agents.but law enforcement has changed from the small town cop to the crime fighters we see today. In past years cops usually didn’t have a degree which led to under trained police officers. This in hand led to riot like that seen in the 60’s but now with criminal justice courses being held all over the country. This has led to police officers and similar agencies being able to learn tactics and other crucial knowledge this doesn’t only help the police officer stay safe but keeps the general public safe from mistakes that didn’t need to happen.
But also the community needs to recognize that the reason behind police putting up more off a guard is these criminal are available to more advanced weapons and so the police department are taking on a more military style of policing an example of this is the increase of swat unit style operation in a study conducted by Dr. Kraska of eastern kentucky university said that in 2005 there were 50,000 swat operations. Which was a increase from only 3,000 in 1980 that is a lot of special units deployments for police forces. This includes that with these special units being called out more means that there is a foe that is more dangerous for a usual traffic cop to handle. But it also can be seen that police departments just want to use extreme force and that is where criminal justice and education help police department know where the median is.
The bad part of more of militarization in the police department is the influx of police brutality or the media reporting on them. I think that media hears more about these events and blows them out of proportion because it is a lot easier to report on a swat team beating up on an individual then it is for a regular traffic cop and this is where many people get the wrong idea on how these teams operate.
Swat teams are not always so innocent in the past many have done operations where accidents have occurred like in 2006 when a swat team raided the house of Sal Culosi on that he betted on a college football game. So the swat team did a raid and in the process Sal was shot through the heart. There are many more like this case in history. This is also where more training and a degree come in handy and it also points out the flaws in the modern police style.
So in conclusion police forces have changed from the small cop handing out traffic tickets to Swat teams busting down doors and arresting people but with this new breed of police officer there arises the need for higher education in police departments and level headed people to run these new generation of officers. The benefits for these improvement will lead to so that people like mr.Culosi don’t get killed in the line of fire. But the people also need to realize that there is a reason for the militarization of our modern police department that the bad guys are armed just as good as the cops that are trying to stop them. So people need to realize that it is alright for our police department to have military gear and that no the police are not trying to just spend money that in fact they need that gear for an equalizer to fight these criminals and not get harmed in the process.
Intro to Criminal Justice
28 Sep 2015
In today’s society, the police department catches a lot of unnecessary flak from the media and general population. This generation of people wielding cell phones everywhere they go has created an atmosphere where people go out of their way to test the limits in order to get the next “viral” video of a police encounter. This leads to encounters getting out of hand very quickly because citizens refuse to comply to lawful commands because they think that they “know their rights” when in reality, most of the time they have no idea what they are talking about.
The events in Ferguson show how quickly things can get out of hand. The officer got a call about a robbery of a convenience store so he was driving towards the store. Along the way, he saw two kids walking down the middle of the street. So he told them that they need to walk along the sidewalk, having no idea that they were involved with the robbery, and continued to drive until he realized that they fit the description. He turned around and drove up next to the kids at which point the kid reached in, tried to grab the gun, flee, and turn back to charge the cop. All of this lead to shots being fired and someone being killed. Personally, I believe it was a justified shooting, but all of this shows how quickly things can get out of hand which allows the media to have a field day with the events.
A perfect example of a citizen with a cellphone purposely pushing the limits to see if the officer would snap is the situation where an officer pulled over a car in Texas for speeding. The suspect refused to comply with the lawful command of rolling down his window and repeatedly refused to give the officer his name while repeatedly saying that “speeding in Texas is not breaking the law” which isn’t true. This encounter lasted about 5 mins, at which point the officer had called for back-up, and since the suspect wasn’t cooperating with rolling down his window the officer felt that it was justified to break out the window of the car to open the door and detain the suspect. Once again, a completely justified action but because the population doesn’t understand how things work or should go down they saw the window get busted and immediately jumped on the officer thinking that he was in the wrong.
The job of a police officer is hard because they don’t know who is a threat or who is carrying a weapon when they stop a car or roll up to a scene. In terms of safety, we simply cannot have our officers worried about what the media will think if they discharge their weapon in a possibly deadly situation, because that thought might cause them to hesitate which could mean the difference between life and death if a suspect has a weapon on them.
Overall, I think that police officers have a tough job without the thought of their every action being caught on camera but the world we live nowadays likes to record everything on their phones in the hopes of being the next “viral” video on YouTube and getting their 15 minutes of fame.
Intro to Criminal Justice
Policing and Law Enforcement
For many years the jobs of a police officer has grown more stressful year after year. There are many different ways to deal with stress. Stress has harmful effects to human body such as: gain weight, severe depression, sleep depredation, loss of sexual libido, and loss of appetite. The ways the police officers combat these side effects are with exercise and relaxation, special training, and seeking counseling. With these techniques police officers can live better lives and do their jobs more affectively.
With basic exercise and relaxation, police officers use strength training exercises to ease stress. According to my source, weight training and core training, and should couple it with balance and stretching exercises for a well- rounded regimen. These types of relaxation exercises are strongly encouraged to do thirty to forty minutes long before your shift starts. Another form of exercise would be aerobics. It involves repetitive motion, such as walking, running or a stair-stepping machine. The repetitive motion of the exercise should be coupled with controlled breathing and a mantra. This will help activate the body's relaxation response. Lastly for the helpful exercising techniques, is simply relaxation. Get more sleep and work on a mantra to repeat your breathing.
According to my source, special training programs for police officers are still very important and help them learn to manage stress. Some common components of these types of training programs include:
• Develop coping skills. Developing your coping skills helps you deal effectively with stressful situations, such as shootings, hostage situations, car chases, etc. An increase in coping mechanisms help decrease negative reactions during and after the stressful event.
• Identify unconstructive attitudes. You may be adding to the stressful situations with your thoughts, emotions, and attitudes. Officers learn to identify their own negative reactions to these situations, making it easier to deal with them.
• Develop communication skills. Communicating ineffectively can cause stress in life overall by increasing the amount of unpleasant, tense interactions. Build healthier work and personal relationships by developing communication skills.
Police officers with a strong support system typically experience lower levels of stress. You need to concentrate on taking care of business with your family. You can be a strong person for them, but they can also be a source of strength and comfort for you. A good way to strengthen your family relationships is taking the time to spend with them or even just as simple as sending them a birthday card. Officer spouses, family, and officers should go to counseling to deal with the specific effects of the stress officers undergo.
Sometimes, officers are uncomfortable with the idea of using a counselor in house because they would like to maintain their privacy. Some officers elect to choose an in-house counselor because they feel the counselor will understand the demands of their job.
In theory, exercise and relaxation, special training, and seeking counseling, can help keep stress levels under control and keep your mind and body in sync. This is a very important tool police officers use in order to keep themselves calm and situated when dealing with high levels of stress. With the thrill of the chase, the adrenaline is pumping and the heart is racing, their stress can sky rocket and can cause major failures while on duty.
Intro to Criminal Justice
Law Enforcement Agencies
Law enforcement jobs are needed all around the world. Without them there would be mayhem, crime would run ramped through the streets. The death toll would skyrocket, not just in America but in the world. Humans need to have some kind of guidance. Laws give humans exactly what we need to survive. Without laws, we would destroy ourselves. We would keep going and going until there would be nothing left. This is why there’s law enforcement all over the world.
But there are many kinds of law enforcement out there. Some are very major while others are rather minimal. Law enforcement consists of the well known police officers and detectives all the way down to the scientists in labs that do the microscope work. Because any and everyone that considers being in law enforcement started out as a recruit that learns the laws and how to shoot. Once the basics are out of the way then they can go into further and more specific job details.
So there is really no law enforcement program that doesn’t consist of some kind of basic training. But the next question is to ask just how many law enforcement jobs are there in the world? Well according to the most recent report from the Bureau of Justice Statistics quadrennial “Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 2008” shows that there were over 1.1 million persons employed on a full-time basis by state and local law enforcement in this country in 2008. Of that number, about 765,000 were sworn personnel—which is defined as those with general arrest powers.
Now that sure seems like a lot of workers to me, but the report contains data from 17,985 state and local law enforcement agencies with at least one full-time officer or the equivalent in part-time officers. If we humans weren’t so crooked and full of wrong doings then we wouldn’t need that many officers. But it says in the Bureau of Justice Statistics that local police departments employed about 477,000 full-time sworn personnel in 2013, that’s 35% more than in 1987.
But all this shows me is that there are tons of different fields of law to go into. There are so many agencies, both large and small that come together to help one another out and get the job done. So I feel that no matter what agency any law enforcement officer is in they’re doing what they can to get the job done, and I can say that I’m truly grateful.
Intro to Criminal Justice
28 Aug 2015
The United States has a dual court system. This means that the federal court has its own court system and states have their own. The federal court system is responsible for the violations of federal law, and state court systems are responsible for violations of the laws in their respective states. An issue involving both federal and state court systems is jurisdiction. This means the court system does not refer to a specific geographic area but to the authority of courts to hear certain types of cases. The federal court only has this to rule on cases involving federal law only. Juvenile courts do not have jurisdiction to hear issues involving divorce or custody issues. A defendant has to go to whatever court specializes in the particular issue at hand.
State and federal court systems also have adversarial system of justice. This system relies on two opposing parties. Usually a defendant vs. the state (prosecutor). Also a neutral body (judge or jury), who decides the outcome of the case. It is usually the responsibility of the state to prove its outcome of the case. The defendant is not responsible for proving his or her innocence at a trial; the state must prove the guilt. The crime-control versus due-process model of justice is when the court system has to balance the needs of the state versus the rights of the defendant.
The New Jersey Plan called for the state court systems to play an active role in adjudicating federal matters. The Virginia Plan proposed a broader and more centralized federal court system with the establishment of a Supreme Court and various lower federal courts. The U.S. Supreme Court is considered the final arbiter for issues involving federal law and the U.S. constitution. The U.S. Supreme court makes the final decision in a case. It is composed of one chief justice and eight associate justices. Appellate courts were established for each federal court circuits (southern, middle, and eastern).
Litigation is the process of bringing and pursuing a lawsuit. Action is another word for lawsuit, case, legal matter or litigation (tenant.net). A hearing is a legal proceeding (other than a trial) held before a judge or court commissioner. At a hearing, preliminary issues, procedural issues, and post trial modifications and enforcements are heard (tenant.net).Resources
Lab, Stephen P, Williams, Marian R, Holcomb, Jefferson E, Burek, Melissa W, King, William R, Buerger, Michael E. Criminal Justice The Essentials. Oxford, New York. 2008. Print. 28 Aug 2015.
The Lectric Law Library. The Court System - How It Works - What It Means. tenant.net. Nd. Web. 28 Aug 2015.
Daniel A. Rogers
Dr. Michael Thompson
Criminal justice (9:25 – 10:40)
October 30, 2015
Different Types of Federal Courts
The court system has been around for quite a while and has been a more reliable form of justice other than the alternatives such as torture or just punishing both if not just one person without a fair trial. There are different levels of the court system as well as different forms of the court system. There is the district court, circuit court, and the supreme court. Each of them have different ways on how they handle the justice system and how strict they are as well as how harsh the crime and punishment they deal with and give.
The federal court work differently in many ways than state courts. The difference is that civil cases and not just criminal cases, is the types of cases that can be in the federal court. Federal courts are courts of limited amount of law and authority, meaning they can only have cases that have been Okayed by the United States Constitution. The federal district court is the starting point for any case. The plaintiff has the initial choice of bringing the case in state or federal court. if the plaintiff chooses state court, the defendant may sometimes choose to “remove” to federal court.
The next type of court is the district court. The district courts are the general courts where they handle all the low key stuff, you know the minor offenses and small things. Judges in the district are there for managing the court and supervising the court’s employees. They also obviously make the final ruling in the court room and make the sentencing. The district curt also deals with federal things like tax issues and criminal cases or just other stuff.
I've never herd of the next court system im about to talk about. The Circuit court is a series of courts in the federal court. There are twelve federal circuits that divide the country into different regions. The Fifth Circuit, for example, includes the states of Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. From what ive read and researched this court system deals with a lot of military and federal court cases on a civilian level.
The most common known court is the supreme court. This is the top of the top court that gets the final say in the every matter in the justice system. People can choose to just go straight to the supreme court but it would take a long time. The judges at the supreme court are called justices. There are nine judges, eight of them are normal and then theres one chief judge. The meet every first Monday of the month.
The court system is an amazing thing with a huge process and different levels and abilities. They all up hold the law and create justice. The law is in the court and its best to stay out of it because it doesn’t always end the way you want It to and can also back fire. So remember kids stay out of court.
only 1 source needs two
Court SystemChase Eggert
November 17 2015
Introduction Criminal justice
The current court system in the united states is kinda of a mystery to most people because it has many steps and is usually not very familiar. But let’s start this off right with where most court cases start on the state level and that is the district courts which most cases usually end there but if not then it goes on to the court of appeals which can either send it down to the districts or say that the original case was properly done. But even above the court of appeals is the state's own supreme court which can then decide what would be the proper way to take on the case. But that is only on the state side. There is also the federal court system which also has their own district court but the districts usually have several states in them and then it goes on to the court of appeals that has to review every case to go through it and then after that step it goes on to the judicial branch or the supreme court. Then the next part that most people do now about the court system is that the usual court case has 12 jurors and a prosecutor and defense and then the judge who oversees everything that is going on and also comes up with the punishment and also keeps order in the court.
The next thing to talk about in a court case is that their are many different kinds courts from patent and criminal and divorce cases and family court. But by farthest criminal court is the most interesting and probably since most of us that are reading this are criminal justice majors then criminal law should be the most interesting. But criminal law includes all felonies and misdemeanours. So to start off most felonies start with the preliminary hearing where the defendant can either plead and set bail also this is when a court date would be held. Then after the preliminary hearing then comes the jury selection where each lawyer on both sides gets 12 challenges where he can have the juror he wants. After that it comes the court date where the defences tries to plead their case against the states or district attorney or the DEA. But also the DEA try to get there case against them and finally after that they find the defendant either guilty or not guilty. After that is established they also in the case decide what the penalty will be from death all the way to acquitted. After that then the judge decides to see if it was the right sensitizing was taken. Then he also decides if the penalty is right and if it needs to be retried. Then the whole court progress starts over.
Finally after the sentencing and deciding where the defendant's punishment will take place. That is usually where people think that the court system ends but usually the courts keep up with the criminals it prosecuted because in some counties where they believe that if they keep in contact that it deters people from going back to crime but that isn’t the only example like for instance if a subject gets house arrest where they have to stay a certain amount of feet from their home will then the court assigns either a officer or a bails men to keep track of that subject tell their punishment is over. That is why when people learn about the court system they are surprised by how many steps that they didn’t know about and that is why it is important for the community to be involved in the criminal system.
18 November 2015
15 November 2015
Institutional corrections facilities include prisons and jails. Prisons are state or federal housing facilities that confine convicted felons with sentences typically longer than a year. Jails are administered by local law enforcement and hold offenders with shorter sentences — usually for 1 year or less — and those awaiting trial(office of justice programs).
Institutional Corrections Technologies
The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) identifies needs, develops technology solutions, and tests the effectiveness of those solutions with the goal of making technology affordable, reliable, and easy to install, use, and maintain. NIJ's equipment and technology program for corrections aims to balance the needs of prisons and jails and use, whenever possible, available technology that can be quickly transferred for use in corrections(National Institute of Justice).
History of Punishment:
It is a common element across human history and societies. Punishment may be justified for a variety of social, political , moral, or religious reasons. In ancient times, punishment for violation of a social norm or law was often handled locally, by either the family, clan, or head of the community. When incarceration did occur, it was for the purpose of holding the offender until the corporal or capital sentence was to take place, usually within a day or two (121). Furthermore, existing punishment and facilities of the day were perceived as ineffective and counterproductive(121).
Era of Punishment:
The purpose of punishment and the use of different types of punishment have largely reflected the needs of a particular society(121).
Era of Reform:
A system where released inmates could continue their treatment in the community. Today it is known as parole(123).
Era of Industry:
Convict Leasing was a southern development. It was another way to enslave blacks following the Civil War. It usually led to illness, suffering, and even death. In Georgia, convicts were beaten if they did not fulfill their duties for that day(124).
Era of Rehabilitation:
Rehabilitation Era focused on the needs of the individual offender and less reliance on prisons to carry out the criminal sanction(125).
Jails and detention centers are facilities designed to hold a variety of offenders for a relatively brief period of time, usually for for less than one year(129-30).
These were built to house fewer inmates in what are known as pods(130-31).
Inmates and Mental Illness:
Dual-disorder inmates are becoming a major concern for management issues in the nation’s prisons and jails. These inmates can be classified as having both substance abuse and mental health problems.
Lab, Stephen P, Williams, Marian R, Holcomb, Jefferson E, Burek, Melissa W, King, William R, Buerger, Michael E. Criminal Justice The Essentials. Oxford, New York. 2008. Print. 28 Aug 2015.
Dr. Michael Thompson
Intro to Criminal Justice
18 November 2015
There are consequences for any type of action taken involving everything. If you study for a test, the consequence will most likely be that you do well. However, if you break a law the consequence will be a visit to the police station, jail, and even possibly prison. Jail and Prison are two example of institutional corrections facilities. Jails contain people convicted of crimes that carry a short term sentence, usually a year or less and are run by the local law enforcement agency. If a person is convicted of a crime in Las Vegas, they will be put in the Clark County jail run by the LVPD. Prisons contain people convicted of crimes that carry a sentence that is longer than a year and are state or federal corrections facilities. The National Institute of Justice helps to develop new and improved technologies that help make the flow and operation of the facilities better and more efficient. These facilities have developed because of one of the most common traditions throughout time. Dating way back to the beginning of time, punishment has always been used as a way to deter bad behavior. Today, this system is said to “rehabilitate” the offenders inside the prison. However, I disagree with that statement as majority of the time all it does is harden the people even more. It makes them hate others who aren’t “like them” so it makes them more likely to lash out again and become a repeat offender. It essentially ends up wasting a life because once they get out, they’re changed completely and not in the way the system was designed.
The definition of juvenile delinquency according to the find law website," Juvenile delinquents are minors, usually defined as being between the ages of 10 and 18, who have committed some act that violates the law. These acts aren’t called “crimes” as they would be for adults. Rather, crimes committed by minors are called “delinquent acts.” Instead of a trial, the juvenile has an “adjudication,” after which she receives a “disposition” and a sentence. However, juvenile proceedings differ from adult proceedings in a number of ways. Delinquent acts generally fall into two categories. The first type of delinquent act is one that would be considered a crime had an adult committed it. For particularly serious crimes, some jurisdictions will even try children as adults. When children are tried as juveniles, on the other hand, parents are often required to pay the court costs for the child." This is honestly very true and contians a lot of information about juveniles. It gives a brief yet very informational description.
But, according to the study website, "According to the FBI, a juvenile is anyone under the age of 18 regardless of how each individual state defines a juvenile. A delinquent is an individual who fails to obey the laws." It is a lot more brief and doesn't tell as muchg information but it still gives you a broad spectrum as to what a juvenile is.
Dr. Michael Thompson
Intro to Criminal Justice
18 Nov. 2015
In the 1980's and 1990's juvenile crime in the nation rose dramatically. In response, states across the United States enacted laws that required law enforcement and courts to automatically charge youth as adults if they were alleged to have committed certain violent crimes and weapon offenses. The act also created the office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, which is now a division of the United states department if Justice, and the National Institute for Juvenile Justice and Delinquency. Many youth's today have been placed in restricted Institutes because of their behaviors or wrong doings, but these institutes are to better the teens life and teach them from wrong to right.
Many institutions have helpful programs. For an example, they the have community supervision, non residential programs and services and residential programs such as: group homes, ranches or camps, and institutions. Boot camps and day treatment programs are the most to have a success in the field. They also have subcomponents that correct the teens with intensive supervision and electronic monitoring within the community corrections. Youths who are arrested will go through an intake process.
The court can determine whether formal proceedings will occur. Some youth remain in detention until their cases are prosecuted and adjudicated, whereas others are released until they return to the court. For youth who have created serious crimes, are nearing legal adulthood, and/or are chronic offenders, a wavier or transfer process may result in the criminal court taking jurisdiction over the case.
Next we have adjudicated as a delinquent. Which means a youth who has been found guilty by a judge of committing a delinquent act. The delinquent will proceed to juvenile corrections programs or other dispositions. The system narrows the number of youth at every successive point, resulting in fewer youth reaching the most restrictive corrections programs at the end of the system.
Lastly, programs are beneficial for juveniles because they learn four important traits to use in your everyday life. First is order. Order creates a truly and orderly environment. Second would be, Manageability. Manageability leads the teens to a positive direction. Thirdly, Momentum. It detoxifies in them in detention while they have no access to tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, crack-cocaine, and prescription drugs. It's not common for parents and legal guardians of delinquent youth to re-evaluate their personal and family practices as the result of interactions with juvenile detention staff and programs. And fourthly, Community- based services. Community service is very important and plus it helps the community become better.
In conclusion, juvenile crime has a high percentage, but these institutions help them become better. It helps them learn three beneficial traits in which they can pass on to others and make the community better. Having the act created to have courts charge youths as adults, has dramatically raised the statistics for juveniles getting arrested and treated like adults. It teaches them to make right decisions and to become better people.
States created juvenile justice system to protect the public from children who commit crimes. However states recognize juveniles as less blameworthy and more capable of change. Because juveniles are recognized differently, states have created a separate system that is different from adults. To avoid putting juveniles in jails with adults, states created a probation system used to provide minors with supervision, guidance, and education. Although the juvenile justice system was different from adults, juveniles still were required to have many of the same rights adults have. This include rights to an attorney and the right to confront a witness against them.
In most states juveniles are those who commit crimes while they are under the age of 18. When ruling in the juvenile cases, judges choose from a range of legal options that meet the safety needs of the public and the needs of the youth involved. For the privacy of the child involved, the cases is often kept from members of the public and records are confidential. This protects the child from carrying the burden of their delinquent past into their adulthood. However, because juvenile records are not necessarily sealed, juvenile delinquents may have a difficult time obtaining employment, serving in the military, or receiving financial aid for college.
Over the years the crime rates in juveniles have rose, and because of that some states have adopted a “get-tough” program. This program has the power to diminish the protection of the juvenile justice system for some youth. States have created many options of moving youth to adult criminal court for trial and punishment. As a result some states have no lower age for trying children as adults. And many youth receive long, adult sentences that is equivalent to life without parole. In 2009, 22% of arrests involving youths who were eligible in their state for processing in the juvenile justice system were handled within law enforcement agencies and the youths were released. 67% were referred to juvenile court, and 9% were referred directly to criminal court.
The juvenile justice system has been in the works for years and they have finally created a system that works to ensure that youth are treated fairly, and have access to council, throughout every stage of the court process.
Intro to Criminal Justice
Juvenile delinquents are minors, who are usually between the ages of 10 and 18, that have committed an act that violates the law. Acts committed by minors are called “delinquent acts” instead of “crimes” as they are called for adults. Delinquent acts usually fall into two categories, an act that would be considered a crime if an adult had committed it or an “age-related” or “status crime”. If a minor commits a particularly serious crime, some jurisdictions will try the child as an adult. When tried as juveniles, parents must pay the court costs for the child. Age related crimes are most commonly seen as children staying out past curfew or truancy, which is continually not attending school without good reason.
In 2013, there were about 75 million juveniles in the United States. This meant that one in four Americans had the potential of being labeled a juvenile delinquent. With a growing population of juveniles (those up to age 18), juvenile delinquency rates could increase and cause thousands of more juvenile delinquents.
In the United States, boys have five times the chance of becoming a juvenile delinquent than girls. There are many explanations to why boys commit more crimes than girls. The first is that males are naturally more aggressive than females. The next is that society pressures males to be masculine and aggressive. Lastly, the way males are treated by their families can lead them to causing more criminal activities.
Juvenile delinquents commit their crimes when they aren’t in school. Crimes occur most after school lets outs and declines as the afternoon and evening goes on. On non-school days it occurs starting in the afternoon and throughout the evening, with the peak times from 7 pm to 9 pm when it is dark outside. Curfews are in place to help reduce juvenile crime between the hours of 10 pm to 6 am, but only 15% of crimes happen during those hours, while 63% of juvenile crimes occur on school days.
Because after-school activities for children have decreased in recent years children are at a higher risk to participate in activities that lead to juvenile delinquency. Parks, recreational facilities, and school programs don’t have enough funding and therefore children aren’t participating in activities that are constructive for their growth. If children aren’t in a safe environment that supports their learning and advancement, they will participate in the activities where they are welcomed which usually occur in a negative environment.
Daniel Rogers A.
Codi Guillory & Bryce Rone