- Foundations of Policing
- Police Personnel Issues
- Police Work
- Legal Issues in Policing
- Challenges of Law Enforcement
- Future of Policing
The police are legitimate, bureaucratically articulated organizations that stand ready to use force to sustain political order. In our constitutionally based criminal justice system we are faced with the dilemmas inherent in policing a free society.
As such, it is my goal to take you beyond mere sound-bites and statistics and present you with a contemporary overview of what it means to be a police officer. To accomplish this goal I have designed this course to provide you with realistic expectations about policing so that you can think critically about the appropriate role of the police in our society. We will discuss contemporary operational strategies and their effectiveness as well as modern innovations that address some of the underlying causes of crime.
Welcome to the class wiki.
Dr. Michael Thompson
Law Enforcement Agencies and Their Organization
By: Wes Stephenson
We all have seen, hung out with and even been arrested by a person of the law. But have you ever wondered just how many types of agencies are really out there? Before reading this chapter I really thought that I knew about the majority of law enforcement agencies but I was wrong. One staggering statistics reported by the FBI is that there are a total of 14,169 agencies that employ over 708,569 officers. You will find out the different types of law enforcement organizations and a brief overview of what they day.
There are several categories of agencies and they are broken into local, state and federal. You can also include county and municipal level as well as specialized agencies that do not fit into any of the above categories. The majority of the agencies all have common rules to follow but when you go deeper into them you find out that some have jurisdiction over other and some cannot be involved unless they are called upon.
Some of the most well know organizations are the FBI, CIA, DEA, local and state police, State Troopers and county sheriffs. The FBI, CIA and DEA are all federal agencies they can be broken up into smaller teams to work on specific tasks and priorities. The local and state police generally have the same task as protecting their area which could be a town, city or county. If they are needed to, they can go outside of their jurisdiction but only when called upon to do so.
1. Agencies and Their Numbers. 02 Feb. 2008. Web. 04 Mar. 2011. http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2008/data/table_74.html
2. Schmalleger, Frank, and John L. Worrall. Policing Today. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2010. Print.
By: Wes Stephenson
Everyone knows that a job in law enforcement is exciting and can be different every day but what most people do not know is what type of issues can arise from being in law enforcement. There are several issues that can come with the job and they are stress, fatigue and contract disagreements. All of these are the realities of the job and can become very overwhelming if they are not taken care of properly.
Stress can be a big part of any job that involves contact with the public. But the stress with being a cop is in a category of its own. They have to deal with the possibility of violence and death at every turn and that can take a toll on each officer. That type of stress can lead to several problems such as becoming addicted to alcohol, health problems and can even be known to break up families.
The second issue that cops have to deal with is fatigue. Cops not only have to deal with their own personal and family problems, they have to deal with their city problems as well. When they cannot escape that they start to become overwhelmed and get worn out quickly. Not only are personal and business problems the cause of fatigue but long hours and hard work can become an issue as well.
The last issue starts out as a minor problem but can grow and that is contract disputes. Many officers are a part of a union and have to negotiate their contract. The negotiations can cause a lot of stress because they have to fight for their pay, hours and benefits. Sometimes they do not get a choice and they must take what is set by the union.
1. Schmalleger, Frank, and John L. Worrall. Policing Today. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2010. Print.
Digital Story By:Wes Stephenson
Police work has a lot of misconceptions that go along with it. Many people think that being a police officer means being involved in gang shootings, high speed chases, bank robberies or even murders. Sure its possible to be involved in such things but its highly unlikely. In some of the largest cities in the United States where crime rates are the highest, only half of the officers in the department will make a few felony arrests per year.
Being an American police officer includes providing order maintenance, social services, and crime control. Some of the major responsibilities of a police officer include to help any person who is in danger or distress, to protect the public, to resolve conflict, and to protect the constitutional rights of every citizen. Other responsibilities include to identify any criminals or criminal activities and to interfere when appropriate or necessary. Police officers have the responsibility to create a feeling of security within the community and to be there to provide any and all emergency services needed.
Patrol officers are often the most seen type of law enforcement in public. They are trusted by the public to keep order and safety in the area. Patrol officers do many type of things such as 9-1-1 responders. They may be a specialty unit such as SWAT or they may be part of the Victim Support Team to help the victims of crimes such a domestic violence. Patrol officers may also be Parking Enforcement or even Record Keeping.
Police officers often carry a heavy workload. They work 24 hours around the clock every day. People may call for something as little as a easily resolvable confrontation or a noise complaint to emergencies such as shots fired or medical emergencies. Police officers analyze the situation and base the arrest on the seriousness of the situation. If the suspect is yelling and becoming angry and belligerent and is not listening to the officer, an arrest may be placed. If the suspect deems to be dangerous, the officers may place the suspect in handcuffs as a precautionary measure. When the officer speaks to everyone involved and analyzes the area and situation, he will then decide if the suspect should be placed under arrest or if the suspect should be given a ticket or warning.
Police officers have the right to use deadly force when harm is imminent. Deadly force may be considered using a baton, mace, taser, or gun. In any incidents where there are officer involved shootings, the officer will be placed on temporary leave until the incident has been investigated. When the investigation is complete and the shooting was a result of legitimacy, then the officer may resume working.
Although police work is statistically not very dangerous, there are times when it is. Some police officers are told that every time they say goodbye to their families, it might be their last or that every person they may come across may kill them, It often harbors trust issues. Some police may start to see the people they see as somewhat of an enemy.
In my personal opinion I see the police as heros and guardians of our country. They are here to keep us safe, they are here because they want to protect their country and serve their duties. This world would be utter chaos and disorder if Police officers were not available.
"Police Work Isn’t That Dangerous." The Dish. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2013.
"Police Officer." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 13 Apr. 2013. Web. 16 Apr. 2013.
"Criminal Justice: The Nature of Police Work." Criminal Justice: The Nature of Police Work. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2013.
By: Michelle Glaze
Police officers and detectives protect lives and property. Law enforcement officer’s duties depend on the size and type of their organizations.
Police and detectives pursue and apprehend individuals who break the law and then issue citations or give warnings. A large proportion of their time is spent writing reports and maintaining records of incidents they encounter. Most police officers patrol their jurisdictions and investigate any suspicious activity they notice. They also respond to calls from individuals. Detectives, who often are called agents or special agents, perform investigative duties such as gathering facts and collecting evidence.
The daily activities of police and detectives vary with their occupational specialty—such as police officer, game warden, or detective—and whether they are working for a local, State, or Federal agency. Duties also differ substantially among various Federal agencies, which enforce different aspects of the law. Regardless of job duties or location, police officers and detectives at all levels must write reports and maintain meticulous records that will be needed if they testify in court.
State and Local Law Enforcement. Uniformed police officers have general law enforcement duties. They maintain regular patrols and respond to calls for service. Much of their time is spent responding to calls and doing paperwork. They may direct traffic at the scene of an accident, investigate a burglary, or give first aid to an accident victim. In large police departments, officers usually are assigned to a specific type of duty.
Many urban police agencies are involved in community policing—a practice in which an officer builds relationships with the citizens of local neighborhoods and mobilizes the public to help fight crime.
Police agencies are usually organized into geographic districts, with uniformed officers assigned to patrol a specific area. Officers in large agencies often patrol with a partner. They attempt to become familiar with their patrol area and remain alert for anything unusual. Suspicious circumstances and hazards to public safety are investigated or noted, and officers are dispatched to individual calls for assistance within their district. During their shift, they may identify, pursue, and arrest suspected criminals; resolve problems within the community; and enforce traffic laws.
Some agencies have special geographic jurisdictions and enforcement responsibilities. Public college and university police forces, public school district police, and agencies serving transportation systems and facilities are examples. Most law enforcement workers in special agencies are uniformed officers.
Police officers and detectives enforce laws. They catch criminals. They collect evidence. They sometimes testify in court. Others patrol set areas to prevent crime. Some patrol and give out traffic tickets. Some direct traffic.
Most police officers wear uniforms. However, detectives and special agents often work in regular clothes. Most detectives are part of regular police forces, but detectives usually have separate duties from police officers.
Most police officers work on foot or ride in cars, but a few ride horses, bikes, or motorcycles. Some work in boats on rivers and in harbors. Some police work with dogs.
Most police officers and detectives work at least 40 hours a week. When they work longer, they get extra pay. Because police work is a 24-hour-a-day job, some police have to work nights and weekends. They have to be ready to go to work at all times. Police officers may work very long hours on a case. Some have to travel a lot, often on short notice.
Some police officers work outdoors in all kinds of weather. Some take very big risks when they chase criminals in cars or when they make an arrest. Good training, teamwork, and good equipment keep police officers safe.
Police as part of the Criminal Justice system
Police officers are but one part of the criminal justice system. Today’s criminal justice process is set up on a circuit. It starts with a crime being committed to the police stepping in and investigating to making an arrest and forming a case that can with stand court. After that it goes to an Initial Appearance, preliminary hearing then on to bail or detention hearing. If it is a felony it will go on to a grand jury, arraignment, charges dismissed/ trial, acquitted/convicted sentencing, then finally on to probation or corrections.
Police work does not stop with and arrest. Police officers perform duties all throughout the criminal process, even if it’s well after the trial ends and now day’s officers are starting to get more involved in trial affairs.
Partnerships are also another hot topic in all stages of the criminal justice system. Police in particular partner with prosecutors, corrections officials, and other Law Enforcement. Each relationship is unique and is held to different standards.
How much force is too much force? How far can a police officer go before they have a lawsuit staring them in the face? Rookie police officers are warned about overstepping the boundaries and approaching police brutality. However, despite popular belief, there is no set limit on force except the limits set by the policies of each department. Also, no two cases are the same, and no two have the same outcome. The courts to which these complaints are presented make wildly differing decisions. Researchers have tried to find a happy medium, but none have reached a conclusion.
Geographic region also has a part to play in the levels of violence experienced from police departments around the country. There are some departments that encourage the use of what they refer to as "necessary force", and will lay hands on the offender if they so much as refuse to give up their identification. There also exist departments that discourage the use of physical force at all and will reprimand their officers for using force except in extreme situations. There are a multitude of officers who have lost their jobs for simply caring out their duty, while there are far too many officers still on the streets, using their badges to get away with assault, never needing to fear punishment for their brutality.
The problem with any case that gets reported is similar to the statistics on rape cases getting reported. The cases that are reported are simply outraged citizens overreacting, while the cases that should be getting reported are the ones where the parties involved are too scared of the officers involved to even talk about the incident to anyone who might inform the officers so they could take revenge.
The only way the police brutality issue will ever come close to being solved, is if police officers take steps insure that their actions are as blameless and fair as possible; basically, if they had to defend their actions in court, there would be no problem. Also, supervisors must pay closer attention to their subordinates, in order to make sure that if they are displaying signs of extreme violence, or any sort of violent tendencies, that they are given psychological help or released from the force to avoid any danger to the public.
Law. Police, Civil Liability
Misconduct by police officers can lead to civil and criminal liability. Officers can be held legally liable for there conduct. The can be suspended or even arrested for their conduct. There are many different forms of liability. Civil liability is one form where a officer can be sued in civil court because of behavior. There is also federal liability which would be lawsuits brought to the federal courts on civil rights grounds. There has been an increasing trend of false allegations against law officers because people who are in the wrong think that by smearing an officers good name to save their own butt is the way to go. Some of the most common reason people have suing officers include but are not limited to: failure to render proper medical assistance, false arrest, excessive force and even unnecessary use of deadly force. These officers are investigated by internal affairs which has a huge emotional toll on them. Depending on the severity of the allegations the may even be forced to be on leave. This is an all to common trend among us these days and people who make false allegations should be prosecuted to the full extent of the law.
Police officers are not above the law. Where the is evidence that an officer has commited a crime the should be charged the same as a citizen. If police commit breaches of administrative or regulatory law they should also be charged and punished when found guility. Some examples would be traffic regulations and or sexual or racial discrimination. Normally the departments would provide council for there officers if they feel that there employees aren’t at fault. But if there is a hint of recklessness the officer is set to go at it themselves. By providing this help it gives the officer reassurance that there department is behind them. Another important part of accountability for officers is judicial scrutiny in the courts. This is when judges and defense attorneys examine the quality and sources of the police evidence. Evidence obtained illegally, such as illegal search or illegal phone taps usually rule as a detterant to legal conduct.
Patrol, Peacekeeping, and Investigations
There's many kinds of patrol in Law Enforcement. Preventive patrols and Crime Prevention are the main two found in most departments. Preventive Patrols are designed to prevent crime before it happens. Such is done via 'access control' like barriers and entrance ways and exits-any physical obstacle; by surveillance (video systems or foot patrol); by theft deterrence devices (locks, alarms, and tethers); and security by lighting and visibility landscaping. Examples can be found in the Textbook: Policing Today.
Preventive Patrols are designed to be a good 'in-general' practice against crime, unlike that of Crime Prevention which is a specialized type of enforcement. Such forms include canvassing on the neighborhood level; face to face with people to urge them away from crime, like the old friendly cop on the beat from way back when. By informing the people that there's no real benefit committing crimes and that the risk of being caught is greater then getting away with it, Police hope to stop the ones already on the path to the slammer. However, beat cops aren't the only way they hope to bring the above to fruition. Foot patrol aside there is: Auto Patrol, the most common; Bicycle Patrol, used in smaller towns or in areas Auto can't reach; Mounted Patrol, and ecosystem friendly and economically saving alternative; Air Patrol, used in Marijuana Hunts; Water Patrol, used in lakes and rivers; K-9 Assisted Patrol, used in searches and threats; Special Terrain Patrol, ATV's and the like; and finally Segway Patrols, used in Malls (and in my opinion a bit of a joke).
In the end, are such ways really Preventive? As the textbook so happily says: 'No.' Anyway may not work to stop crime because the police force is spread too thin. In some cases, Police presence doesn't mean jack to an offender.
Textbook: Policing Today; Schmalleger, Frank, and John L. Worrall. [Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Columbus OH. C.2010]
Intelligence, Information, and Special Problems.
-Special Groups and Special Problems.
In special groups for the police to protect there are a few groups of people the must pay attention to. Such as the disabled, the specially challenged, and finally children. Children by legal definition is "child n. 1) a person's natural offspring. 2) a person 14 years and under. A "child" should be distinguished from a "minor" who is anyone under 18 in almost all states." (which brings up the question if the book had this definition in mind prior to writing this). Juveniles (anyone under 18) are the ones in most need of help. They are most likely to die of abuse, and a good number of them do die a year as a result of abuse (beaten, raped, etc.).
Police have taken to the protection of children by activating many prevention tactics. Amber Alert is one of them, as their official site says "The AMBER Alert™ Program is a voluntary partnership between law-enforcement agencies, broadcasters, transportation agencies, and the wireless industry, to activate an urgent bulletin in the most serious child-abduction cases. The goal of an AMBER Alert is to instantly galvanize the entire community to assist in the search for and the safe recovery of the child." Another would be the curfew laws which vary from city to city. Police believe that having this system in place it will keep minors on the straight and narrow by enforcing a 'healthy family life' by making them stay inside past God knows what hour and stop those who don't obey the rules from getting worse. Another noteworthy tactic would be cops in schools. After the Columbine shooting, school officials and law enforcement believe that police presence in a school will help keep the students mind frames somewhat sane (and other reasons; they vary from school to school). In my own opinion, if kids wanted to stick it to the cops they will regardless, there's no real reason why a simple presence would do jack-not that different from some adult mind frames.
In the end, the police want to protect our younger generations from going down the tubes, or in some cases-make their work more complicated then it should be. Programs and tactics are in place but really if a kid wanted to beat it, they will.
Textbook: Policing Today; Schmalleger, Frank, and John L. Worrall. [Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Columbus OH. C.2010]
Police Discretion and Behavior
This particular paper is over police discretion and behavior. I will be discussing three main points throughout, the first being discretion, second is behavior and third will be decision making. Each part is essential in the criminal justice system, especially in the day to day lives of police officers.
Discretion is a rather difficult term to try and pin down by definition. As it seems, in this chapter there are three, somewhat broad, definitions. The first being from George Kelling, “where a problem occurs – how it occurs – helps officers decide on the proper course of action.” The second is “a two part decision made by a police officer in a particular situation: (1) whether to intervene, and if the decision to intervene is made, (2) how best to intervene.” And finally the third definition is “the distinction between the letter of the law and the spirit of the law.” Discretion is a necessary and vital part in the criminal justice system, officers must use it. If one was to think critically, there is not enough space in the prison system to hold all people who break the law. Discretion is used to weed out the minor or inconsequential offenses that can be overlooked, to avoid filling our prison system with minor offenders. But is something to be used wisely, otherwise problems arise that take much more to handle, then they would otherwise.
Behavior among police officers can be expressed in two ways, Universalistic Perspective which states that “the view that all police officers are similar and that they exhibit some of the same characteristics and behavior patterns.” Then the Particularistic perspective which says “the view that individual officers differ from one another in various ways, including values, role orientation, and preferred styles of policing.” They are the complete opposite from each other, put in more simple terms, the universalistic perspective says that police officers are all the same, or at the very least, extremely similar. The particularistic perspective means that all police officers are different from one another. In this chapter, to try and help explain things, the book talks about police sub-organizations, the role of female police officers and role orientation, each lending credit to their respective perspective.
The last part if this paper is the decision making of officers. There are four general areas, organizational, neighborhood, situational and individual factors. I will give a brief summary of each and then a list of sub-areas that fall under each of the four.
Organizational—Just like any other organization, officers must do certain things, such as follow the rules, dress accordingly and so on.
Beats and Scheduling
Neighborhood—The neighborhood in which the officer works will affect how he or she will perform their job and behavior. The neighborhoods range from the quiet, no action suburbs to the loud, threatening inner cities.
Racial Composition and Heterogeneity
Situational—The situations will vary, but the situations an officer is put in will affect his or her decision making, such as the offender, crime, by standers, and having or not having a warrant.
Scene and Suspects
Relationships between Parties
Individual Officer Characteristics—Factors such as education, age, experience, gender, ambition, and attitude toward the job, all affect the officer’s decision making in the field.
Educations, Age, and Experience
Ambition and Attitudes
I hope this paper has given an insight to police discretion and behavior.
By Matthew Espinoza
Schmalleger, Frank, and John L. Worrall. Policing Today. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2010. Print.
The Use of Force
The use of force will be discussed in this paper along with the sub-divisions of deadly force, non-deadly force. Although it can be overused in some situations, it is critical to the criminal justice system and the officers in that system.
The use of force, as defined in this book, “the use of physical restraint by a police officer when dealing with a member of the public.” The force, is used through several means by the police officer, they are the following; hitting, holding or restraining, pushing, choking, threatening with or using a baton, a flashlight, or chemical or pepper spray, restraining with a police dog, using a taser or a similar energy weapon, or threatening with or using a gun. The use of excessive force is not the same as just the use of force. Excessive force, as defined by International Association of Chiefs of Police, is “the application of an amount and/or frequency of force greater than that required to compel compliance from a willing or unwilling subject.” An example of excessive force would be the Rodney King beating, where officers had to use excessive force to “subdue” Rodney King.
There are seven levels of force that officers can use; I’ll state these levels with a brief description.
1. Mere Presence—States that just having an officer of the law, police, has the ability to deter crime.
2. Verbalization—Officers try to speak persuasively, until it becomes clear that force is necessary.
3. Command Voice—the voice an officer uses to verbalize a command, it’s more punctual than his or her speaking voice.
4. Firm Grips—these physical grips aren’t supposed to be painful, they are to direct when/where the suspect moves.
5. Pain Compliance—these acts are meant to cause, temporary, pain. They are meant to make a suspect comply when otherwise they wouldn’t.
6. Impact Techniques—such techniques are in the forms of physical contact, chemical spray or stunning weapons.
7. Deadly Force—it is just as it suggests, the use of deadly force to subdue an individual, through certain holds and weapons such as guns.
Deadly force as defined by Black’s Law Dictionary, as used in this book, as “force that may result in the death of the person against whom the force is applied.” An officer can use this as a last resort in situations where an individual is clearly armed with a deadly weapon, or a weapon that can cause severe bodily injury, along with being a danger to the officer and to the public. The officer can only use it if it appears that the public or the officer is in immediate danger. Such as the suspect is pointing the gun at someone, not if their arm is down or being raised.
Non deadly force, simply enough, is essentially the opposite of deadly force. It is defined, in this book, as “force that is unlikely to cause death or significant bodily harm.” Non lethal weapons are what seems to be an “answer” to non lethal force, the weapons include; stun guns, tasers, rubber bullets, beanbag projectiles, pepper spray, snare nets, disabling sticky foam, microwave beams, and high tech guns that fire bolts of electromagnetic energy. Although they may not be as dangerous as lethal weapons, they can be deadly. There have been cases where weapons such as these have killed their targets, non-intestinally.
I hope this has given you some insight into the force being used by our criminal justice system.
By Matthew Espinoza
Schmalleger, Frank, and John L. Worrall. Policing Today. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2010. Print.
The Use of Force
Use of force is defined as the use of physical restraint by a police officer when dealing with a member of the public. Most Law Enforcement officers are given the okay to use the amount of force that is reasonable and necessary to that given circumstance. All officers are trained in the use of force for many different situations. Another type of force is excessive force. This is the use of force great than that required. Excessive force is very serious matter and can result in a lawsuit. Excessive force is not something that is able to be used unless under extreme circumstances. But do remember there is a difference between use of force and excessive use of force.
Levels of Force
Mere presence- with the presence of an officer it is believed that crime and danger will be deterred
Verbalization-when officers speak, they are taught to do so persuasively, if verbalization does not work they move on to forcible options
Command voice-an officer command voice is more vital than his/her speaking voice and the officer’s request takes the form of an order
Firm grips-this would be a physical grip on the body directing a suspect when and where to move. Not intended to cause pain.
Pain compliance- theses are the tactics used on the suspect to get their corroboration by causing pain
Impact techniques- this type of technique may involve physical force or chemical sprays or stunning weapons
Deadly force-this is the force capable of killing the suspect
Force continuum is known as a spectrum of force available to a police officer from the absence of physical force to the use of a deadly weapon. Force is something that is used everyday as if it’s from mere presences to deadly force that’s used. These tactics are used to help with the safety of the public and safety of the officer. And sometimes force for a cop is fun until it's not!
Future Of Policing
The future of policing lies in the hands of our men and women in the workforce as well as the community it is built around. “The police are the public and the public are the police”. This is an old concept stated by Sir Robert Peel in the 1800’s. The community as well as the police workforce must work together in stopping and preventing crimes that may or may not hurt everyone involved. Examples may include a hit and run, a robbery, or something as big as a terrorist attack and etc. One way to better the future of policing is by the use of “predictive policing”. Predictive policing is a way to predict the crime before it is committed. It includes more efficient police agencies and a rapid response and proactive intelligence based tactics.
An issue that arises with future policing is job security. There were 1800 officers 10 years ago in Boston, now there are less than 1400. We have more than 15 times the amount of work but the financial issues are great and being laid off is quite common. There are many policing jobs to be filled but they cannot be filled due to budget cuts and the great debt that the United States is in.
The members of the Society of Police Futurists International (PFI) have more than 30 years of experience training and teaching police. “PFI brings together the finest minds in policing—practitioners and scholars—to focus on researching ways to better anticipate future issues through the use of scientific methods and application of high technology,” says PFI founder William Tafoya. The police futurists are able to tell us of the threats and the outlook of the next few years. Panelists include Alan Beckley, Maj. Tyree Blocker, Capt. Gordon Bowers, Jim Conser, Tom Cowper, Joe Grebmeier, Kenneth Hailey,Steve Hennessy, Eugene Hernandez, Bernard “Bud” Levin, Judith Lewis, Gary Sykes, and William Tafoya the founder of the PFI.
Technologies will improve in the coming years assisting crime as well as fighting it. Budgets will be lower and expectations will be higher. In the future we hope to have more intelligent vehicles to prevent car accidents and less use of cash to prevent robbery. We hope to have nonlethal weapons as an option rather than using deadly force and digital documentation for officers. In my opinion, society has to make a change as well. Society must not ignorantly place themselves in harms way, even if unintentional, we can take steps starting now so that being in harms way is drastically reduced.
In conclusion, the future of policing seems somewhat promising-as long as there are jobs, the police will continue to grow and flourish into a new era. An era where we can feel safe in almost all of the time and look back at the past and be proud of what we have accomplished. Crime will never cease and as long as it continues, the peacekeepers known as the police will continue to do their job to their utmost potential and I am proud to have them on my side.
The Future of Policing
By Tyson Miller
Terrorism plays a huge part in policing, Chapter 16 focuses a great deal on terrorism and homeland security. Although there is no definition for terrorism, the “Foreign Relations Authorization Act defines terrorism in terms of four main characteristics: premeditation, political motivation, violence, and the fact that it generally targets noncombatant” (Schmalleger 379). Behind most acts of terrorism all four of these must be present.
Another definition of terrorism provided by Gwynn Nettler proposes that six characteristics must be present.
1. No rules. There are no moral constraints or standards of what is considered
acceptable. In other words, anything goes.
2. No innocents. Terrorists do not distinguish between innocents and noninnocents, or
civilians and soldiers.
3. Economy. The concern is with inflicting as much damage as possible while at the
same time scaring even more people (for example, kill one person, terrify 10,000
4. Publicity. All terrorist incidents are highly publicized. Terrorists seek publicity in an
effort to heighten people’s fear levels, weaken economies, and so forth.
5. Meaning. Violent acts and the infliction of mass casualties give meaning to terrorist’s
6. No clarity. The long-term goals of terrorism are either delusional or impossible to
implement (for example, Islamic dominance).
When terrorism it brought to mind most people think of acts such as those that occurred on September 11 2001. Those specific acts are large-scale thus making them more memorable and brought to mind first. However terrorism can be broken down into five subcategories, these include domestic terrorism, international terrorism, cyberterrorism, narcoterrorism, and ecoterrorism.
Domestic terrorism is defined as “ ‘homegrown’ terrorism or terrorism carried out by an individual or a group that is based in and operating within the country being attacked” (Schmalleger 379). A great example of domestic terrorism is the 1995 bombing of the Oklahoma City federal building. The two men who organized and acted out were citizens of the United States. They showed hatred towards the government and acted as retaliation for past decisions the government officials had made.
International terrorism tends to spring from outside of one’s nations borders. In this kind of terrorism the terrorist has some sort of connection with a foreign power or organization. The attacks on September 11 are prime examples of international terrorism. The attackers had connections with the terrorist group al-Qaida that originates from the Middle East with Islamic background.
Cyberterrorism is a unique form of terrorism in which terrorist “use computers and the Internet to carry out attacks” (Schmalleger 382). Although there are not any major cases of cyberterrorism, smaller cases do still happen. When for example, information or money is “hacked” or stolen form an individual or business in a way were it negatively affects the victim it is considered cyberterrorism. This is a relatively new for of terrorism that is increasing with the advances in computer technology.
Narcoterrorism is defined at the relationship and “collaboration between drug traffickers and terrorist groups” (Schmalleger 382). Many Columbia based drug traffickers are put into this category. Smuggling drugs into the United States is a huge business. Billions of dollars are made each year in this industry; some of that money is used to finance terrorist groups.
Ecoterrorism is the last form of terrorism. People involved with this particular kind of terrorism are interest in the environment and animal rights. Ecoterrorist are concerned about the direction people are going and changes that are made that will effect the environment. One cause discussed the textbook is the 1998 arson attack against a Vail, Colorado ski resort. Two angered ecoterrorist set fire to the ski lodge causing millions of dollars in damage. Their motives were driven by their concern of the destruction of the natural mountain environment that had been destroyed in creation of the ski resort.
These five major types of terrorism all have their differences from each other. They all are hard to compare at just a glance, but after taking time to study them in depth, one can see that they all share the four major characteristics held by every terrorism group. As time continues to pass and as long as humans keep their standing up for their beliefs there will always be some form of terrorism, we must all embrace the fact and learn how to prevent these acts.
Schmalleger, Frank, Worrall, John L. Policing Today. Pearson Education Canada. 5
The Use of Force
By Tyson Miller
In the career of law enforcement, police officers have one very valuable tool; the use of force. The use of force is defined as “the use of physical restraint by a police officer when dealing with a member of the public” (Schmalleger 353). There are many different types of force that an officer can use and different ways in which the force can be applied.
Officers must use discretion when deciding what kind of force to use in each particular situation for example, with each situation there is a Suspect Action (complaint, resistant [passing], resistant [action], assaultive [physical injury], and assaultive [serious physical injury or death]) followed by the Officer’s Perception (strategic, tactical, volatile, harmful, and lethal), and the Officer’s Response (cooperative controls, contact controls, compliance techniques, defense tactics, and deadly force). Depending on the type of situation the officer will use a different type of force in order to control the situation and keep everyone who might be involved safe. “Police officers are trained to use only the necessary level of force to gain control over a situation or to subdue an unruly suspect” (Schmalleger 354).
Non-deadly force is one type of force police officers use must often and would prefer to use in a situation when compliance controls and verbal orders do not suffice. Non-deadly force is defined as “force that is unlikely to cause death or significant bodily harm” (Schalleger 362). There are some causes where harm or death can occur however; non-deadly force is used for deadly force. Weapons such as stun guns, tasers, rubber bullets, bean bag projectiles, and pepper spray all inflect enough pain to momentarily distract the person so the situation. These weapons are very beneficial in group riot situations as well as one on one conflict.
Deadly force is almost the opposite of non-deadly force, where officers act in ways where they may apply major bodily harm or death to the criminal. Weapons most often used by officers to apply deadly force are their firearms. In the Supreme Court case of Tennessee vs. Garner police shot and killed a 15-year -ld fleeing felon Edward Garner as he tried to climb a fence to escape the police. The Court concluded that Garner posed as a serious threat to others and the police acted in an appropriate manner. More importantly, “the court ruled that deadly force may be used when two criteria are present: (1) It is necessary to prevent the suspect’s escape, and (2) the officer has probable cause to believe that the suspect poses a serious threat of death or serious physical injury to others” (Schmalleger 359). As these guidelines were set, officers were knowledgeable and protected from not responding correctly to a fleeing suspect.
There are other untraditional cases as well. Suicide by a cop is a situation where “individuals…are determined to die [engaged] in behavior that causes responding officers to resort to deadly force” (Schmalleger 361). This method of suicide causes problems for officers and puts them in very difficult situations. The subject knows that the officer will react in certain ways depending on what the subject does, thus he or she acts so the officer is required to counter react. One example is if the subject draws a gun on a officer or civilian and acts in a way where there is a very good immediate chance of harm be inflicted then the officer may then use deadly force upon the subject many times resulting in death. If at all possible officers avoid these situations at all costs, the guilt and remorse is often very difficult to deal with.
The final topic of the use of force is using unnecessary force and/or abusing the authority. There are instances where officers are simply in the wrong when they unjustly abuse their authority and power upon citizens. This may not happen very often but it still does appear. For example, taking bribes, and unnecessary physical abuse on their suspect are two examples of officers abusing their power. There are corrupt officers in many cities and towns are almost certainly will always be.
The use of force in law enforcement is a very much-needed tool. In most cases, the use of force aids in capturing the suspects and criminals in an efficient way. Although there can be consequences and corruption of having the right to use force, it will definitely be used in law enforcement in many years to come.
Schmalleger, Frank, Worrall, John L. Policing Today. Pearson Education Canada. 5
Becoming A Cop
Becoming An Officer
It takes much more than just attending the police academy and passing the entrance exam. It takes a certain type of person to take on this field of work. More than just good test scores are required. First, you need to get hired. Before you actually do any police work, you must go through an array of tasks. You have to test well, and then there is the interview as well as a background check including a medical and drug history. Once you get through all the “red tape”, comes the academy training followed by the field training.
Law enforcement is considered a civil service profession. A civil service is a system that hires, retains, advances, disciplines, and discharges based on a person’s abilities and qualifications. The civil service system was brought into play so that law enforcement would be more professional and give everyone a fair chance at becoming a police officer. Back in the political era, law enforcement was a patronage system. A patronage system is based on the political lie‑detect.jpg support of someone in office.
After the intense screening, there is still the polygraph test. The polygraph test is not used to find fault, it is used to promote honesty in the perspective candidates.
Requiting for law enforcement is advertized on television, billboards, and even the internet. The only problem with that is it brings all kinds of dishonest people. It takes a certain type of person to be a police officer. A person of integrity and honesty along with bravery and compassion. A police reformer by the name of August Vollmer said candidates for the position of police officer should “have the wisdom of Solomon, the courage of David, the patience job and the leadership of Moses, the kindness of the Good Samaritan, the diplomacy of Lincoln, the tolerance of the Carpenter of Nazareth, and, finally, an intimate knowledge of every branch of natural, biological, and social sciences.”
Policing Today by Frank Schmalleger & John L. Worrall
By Jason Ackerman
Future of Policing
By Zach Friedland
The policing of today is a result of hundreds of years of trial and error in policing the world. Now that cyber crime is on the rise and will continue to be on the rise in the future. In ten years their will have to be a whole organization dedicated to cyber crime. An officer can’t drive around and patrol the cyber area and a lot of older officers barley know how to use a flip phone let alone a computer or the new social networking sites that everybody is on. Many police forces have less people and all of the officers are very generalized in what they can do. In the future jobs will be more specialized because the crime is becoming specialized. The use of omnicompetent officers is fading away due to the advances in crime and technology. The newest fad that many policing officials say is on the rise is predictive policing. what is this you ask, This is police departments analyzing past data and crime patterns to determine where the hot spots are and to patrol their anticipating that the spot will stay hot. Predicting policing has brought about some fourth amendment issues because some think that it violates the right. In the supreme court decision of Illinois v. Wardlow they ruled that the “high crime” designation for an area is a relevant basis to stop somebody based on totality of circumstances of analysis. With all of the budget cuts that have been coming about for some time. This predictive policing should make departments more efficient with the funding they get. Instead of sending out officers on a wild goose chase and have hundreds just roaming around. This predictive policing idea will make it so a department can deploy 20 officers that will do the work of the 100 because they will be concentrated in one “hot” place instead of all over.
We are in the era of change and the power in law enforcement is going from the old school power head to the get the job done and more laid back new generation. Baby boomers that were born between the 60’s and 70’s were raised by over protective parents that never left their side and that translated to their work in law enforcement. The new generation was raised by “peer-ents” and want order but not in the traditional form. The new generation of police want a constant stream of feedback instead of the traditional boss that you report to in different time intervals. This new era of people are called the Millennials and they believe that their boss could learn a lot from them by listening to them instead of them just sitting and listening to their superior. This new generation also falls into the “I want it now” time and doesn’t like to wait around for promotions. Paying ones dues is looking like a thing of the past due that the new generation wants to be at the top from the start and a few years of waiting is to long. The future of policing is a bright future and may take a while to get used to but its on its way and everybody is going to have to get used to it.