- Definitions and Theories of Terrorism
- Types of Terrorism
- Breeding Grounds of Terrorism
- Emerging Forms of Terror
- Student Projects
Terrorism, despite its rarity, is a momentous social event whenever it happens. The very word terrorism holds us at attention. When terror is used as a social tool for social change, it invites among us a kind of social alarm, a disturbance of the basic sense of social order with calamity that shakes us at the very core of our civilized society. This class will holistically study the presentation of terrorism as a worldwide phenomenon. We will take a broad look at all major forms of terrorism and highlight patterns of similarity and contrast the differences found when terror is used to accomplish political aims. Additionally, we will discuss various social behaviors and learn how society can easily find itself giving birth to the circumstances that allow terrorism to emerge. Moreover, our discussions will open a window to the future of terrorism and the attempts to control it.
Dr. Michael Thompson
Definitions and theories of counterterrorism
Definition of Terrorism
Criminal and violent acts committed by a section of the people against the Society, Humanity and the Government to get their demands accepted or work done is known as Terrorism . In other words, terrorism takes place when some section the people adopts violent means to change the democratic set up or to get their demands fulfilled. Generally, this section does not believe negotiation or cannot achieve their aim through it.
Among many faces of the terrorism, following are the few to be named:- Sabotage, Assassinations, Derailment of trains, Hijacking of planes Kidnappings, Looting of Banks, and Exploding Bombs etc. The purpose is to create terror in the minds of the people and thereby to make their ground strong. Having no respect in the ethnic values and to the government and humanity, they resort to violence to create a panicky in the society. Satisfaction of their demands and taking revenge becomes the main aim thereby the easiest way chosen is the terrorism.
Causes of Terrorism :-
Basic causes of terrorism are ——
a.Dissatisfaction over certain issues:- There may always be some difference of opinion or disagreement between persons, societies, regions, groups, provinces or countries, but some people could not reconcile the same and get frustrated which ultimately resorts to lawlessness, looting, killing, kidnapping and mass violence. Unemployment and poverty which arises due to regional imbalance of economic development in different parts of the world also plays vital role in promoting terrorism. Sometimes terrorism takes birth due to religious and caste conflicts also.
b.Misuse of national and international machinery: - National and International governments often use their might where some other means could have done well, party politics, partiality and biased decisions also responsible for this severe problem. The section which are at the receiving end get depressed and frustrated and forms outfit groups who starts indulging on atrocities and disturbing the normal life trying to draw the attention of the world towards them.
c.Technological Development: - Development in science and technology has given us several destructive and improved arms and ammunitions which has somehow reached in the hand of the outfits and thereby aggravating the problems. Cross country illegal drag and ammunition trafficking also contributes havoc in this parameter.
d.Injustice and Exploitation motive:- Tendency to exploit others is a natural phenomenon which is still very much present in almost all corners of the world. The poor and less developed are still being exploited by the so called advanced sectors and the former thinks that the system can be set right by means of terrorism and muscle power.
e.Assistance and encouragement from outside:- Several countries in the world are facing the aggravated terrorism problem, because of the cross border assistance provided to the anti social elements by means of pecuniary help or arms contribution or some other way and thereby making the things simply unmanageable.
-Definitions and Theories
By William Vasbinder
• Terrorism- the use of violence and threats of violence to obtain political demands.
• Terrorist- A person, usually a member of a group, who uses or advocates violence or threats of violence especially, in pursuit of political goals.
• Counterterrorism-Terrorism in reaction to or retaliation for same previous act of terrorism.
• Taliban-Muslim fundamentalist group in Afghanistan.
• Anti-Terrorism-used or designed to combat terrorism.
• Alqaida-radical Sunni Muslim organization dedicated to the elimination of a Western presence in Arab countries and militantly opposed to Western foreign policy: founded by Osama bin Laden in 1988.
Americans supported the war in Iraq not because Saddam Hussein was an evil dictator, we had known that for many years, but because President George W. Bush had made the case that Saddam might give weapons of mass destruction to his terrorist allies to wreak havoc on the United States of America. Saddam Hussein never appeared to have any weapons of mass destruction, or any ties to any significant terrorist groups like alqaida. Yet the belief that Saddam Hussein posed an imminent threat to the United States of America allowed the Bush administration to sell it to the public.
According to Bob Woodward’s book “Bush at War”, immediately after 9/11 Wolfowitz told the cabinet. “There was a 10 to 15 percent chance Saddam was involved”. However, the most comprehensive criminal investigation in history, involved chasing down 500,000 leads and interviewing 175,000 people had turned up no evidence in Iraq’s involvement, while the occupation of Iraq by a substantial American army has also uncovered no evidence. The U.S. States Dept. counterterrorism office, which every year releases a survey of global terrorism, stated in its 2000 report; Iraq has not attempted an anti-western attack since its failed attempt to assassinate former President Bush in 1993 in Kuwait. In other words, by 9/11 Saddam’s regime had not engaged in anti-American terrorism for almost a decade.
Ideas just don’t appear. So, how is it that the Bush administration believed that Iraq had been so deeply involved in terrorism directed at the United States targets for many years?
Mary Jo White, the U.S. attorney who successfully prosecuted both the Trade Center case and the alqaida bombers behind the 1998 attacks on U.S. embassies in Africa, said that there was no evidence to support the claims. There were no ties to the Iraqi government. In sum, by the mid 90’s the Joint Terrorism Task Force in New York, the FBI, the New Yorks Attorney’s Office, the CIA , the N.S.C., and the state department, had all found no evidence implicating that the Iraqi government in the first Trade Center attack.
http://infotrac.galegroup.com/itweb Gale Document: Book “Armchair Provocateur” by Peter Bergen
By: Chris Leth
Osama Bin-Laden was born in Saudia Arabia. He is the 17th child of 51 children. His father Yameni Porter, whom became the wealthiest construction magnet in Saudia Arabia.
Bin-Laden married his 15 year old first cousin in 1974. She was the first of 4 wives. He has fathered more than 20 children.
While in college Osama was introduced to “transitional jihad.” In 1979 Osama left Saudi with other Muslims after the Soviet Union invaded the country. He became a guerilla fighter raising money and fighting against the Soviets. Bin-Laden created Al-Qaidia to help remove the Soviets from Afghanistan. In 1989 after the Soviets left Afghanistan Osama returned a hero. A year later he was expelled for being with a terrorist group.
The first attacks Al-Qaidia had against the United States was the bombing in Somalia when they bombed a hotel where U.S. troops were staying. In 1993 they bombed the World Trade Center. In 1996 Osama declared war on the USA. On September 11, 2001 Osama and Al-Qaidia were behind the planes that crashed into the world trade center, a plane hit the Pentagon and a third plane was crashed into the ground in Pennsylvania. Over 2,992 people were killed in this attach.
May 1, 2011, ten years after the attack on the USA, Osama- Bin Laden was shot and killed by US Navy Seals team. Osama was given a speedy Muslim burial at sea. DNA and photos were taken to prove it was Osama that was killed. President Obama has decided that the pictures and video will not be published.
Oklahoma City Bombing
By Daniel Bolte
Terrorism is an act of killing, Timothy McVeigh killed over 150 people because of an opinion of his. He thought the government was corrupt, therefore having a “secret society”. He thought his act of terrorism was right because he was so called proving a point.
“MSNBC's 'McVeigh Tapes' acts as Oklahoma City bombing killer Timothy McVeigh's megaphone”
BY DAVID HINCKLEY
DAILY NEWS STAFF WRITER
Monday, April 19, 2010
“MSNBC's two-hour special on the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing is unsettling in ways the producers perhaps did not intend.Using bomber Timothy McVeigh's recorded words to illustrate and explain his crime, "The McVeigh Tapes: Confessions of an American Terrorist" is designed as a somber warning about the dangers of unchecked fanaticism.It is. At some point, though, it also starts to feel a little like a megaphone for a killer to sell the murder of children as an act of high patriotism.It's not that MSNBC host Rachel Maddow shows a shred of sympathy for McVeigh. The 7,000-pound bomb with which he blew out the front of the Murrah Federal Building 15 years ago today, killing 168 people, was and remains the most lethal single act of domestic terrorism in U.S. history.Maddow, who is only on camera briefly, explains that McVeigh's story has a new dark urgency today because we are seeing a rise in the kind of "anti-government extremism" he represented.In 45 hours of interviews he gave to two Buffalo News reporters before he was executed in 2001, McVeigh says a dangerous government was destroying America's freedom and the only way to get that government's attention was with "a body count."To the parents of the 19 children killed by his bomb, he says, "Get over it."It's arguable that if this special were just two minutes long and had featured only that one quote, it would have packed as much power as the two-hour version.As it stands, the special has three primary components: the tapes; commentary from law enforcement officials, McVeigh's attorney, victims and their families and digitally altered film that put McVeigh's face on characters re-enacting his life up through the bombing.The tapes and the re-enactments get most of the airtime, suggesting the producers felt nothing would chill us like McVeigh's own words.To an extent, that's true.But after an hour or so, his self-congratulatory tone begins to feel more disturbing.He talks like a man who figures that if he can keep repeating one endless mantra - that he was a soldier who conceived a sound plan and carried it out with calm military discipline - he can block out the idea anything else mattered. The Columbine shooters probably felt the same way.He won, he says, even though he immediately got himself arrested and there was no evidence anyone saw his "revolutionary" act as anything other than murdering the innocent.If mass murder weren't involved, McVeigh's story would simply be sad - a kid who left only a trail of failure.When he set off a bomb, the story also became ugly and that's a story we should hear. We just don't need two hours to get it.”
Finalizing this act of terrorism was a horrific day, causing many families stress and also a cloud of darkness. This man did a crime and our government did not do what they needed. If you look at some other articles you will find many people volunteered to help. This could not have been stopped but we could have done a better job of copping with this devastation. Our world society needs to fix the problems of terrorism.
Content of Tab No. 3.
Osama Bin Laden
Freedom is the right of individuals to act as they choose. Our freedom is taken away from us though when terrorism strikes. Terrorism implants fear in to the minds of all and disrupts our everyday actions. On September 11, 2001 a tragedy occurred in New York City, at the World Trade Center. Two hijacked airplanes were flown straight into the twin towers killing over 6,000 people and injuring the minds of all Americans. This violent act of terrorism was masterminded by the Al-Qaida leader Osama Bin Laden. After the attacks, various freedoms were taken from us. For example, the freedom of flying in an airplane without fearing it being hijacked, opening a letter in the mail without the fear of it having anthrax in it, and the simple freedom of taking a tour through the White house because it was temporarily shut down to tourists after the attacks. If we cannot put a stop to terrorism then the lives that we lead will be stricken with the fear of not knowing if we are safe to fly in a plane or take a ride in a bus. America is now in a war against terrorism and we are going to fight until the end so we can insure the safety of all Americans and so we can put a stop to this undying threat of terrorism that has been a problem facing the United States. The U.S. military killed Osama Bin Laden on May 1, 2011 taking a step into solving the war on terrorism.
By Caleb Fox
TYPES OF TERRORISM
By: Brandi Williams
Terrorism is defined as the use of violence and threats to intimate or coerce, especially for political purpose. There are six discrete types of terrorism according to the National Committee on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals. They all share the same traits of being violent acts that attempt to harm the lives of civilians, destroy property, and invoke fear.
Civil Disorder -
Civil Disorder is a form of corporate violence meddling with the security, peace, and normal functioning of the community. Civil disorder is usually opposed to a political action or policy, and is sometimes violent form of protest that is held by a group of individuals.
Political Terrorism -
Political Terrorism is mainly designed to create fear in the community, or substantial segment of it for political purposes by using violent criminal behavior. Its main purpose is to intimidate another and although government leaders are the ones who are intended to get the ultimate message, the one targeted with violent attacks are the citizens.
Non-Political Terrorism -
Non-political terrorism is a terrorist act committed by a group for a purpose, but most often of a nature due to religion. It exhibits “conscious design to create and maintain a high degree of fear for coercive purposes, but the end is individual or collective gain rather than the achievement of a political objective.” Their desired goal has the same tactics involved, but is something other than a political objective.
Quasi Terrorism -
Quasi terrorism is an act that is violent and utilizes the same methods terrorists employ, but doesn’t have the same motives. It has two similarities with genuine terrorism; form and method. An armed criminal who utilizes civilians as hostages to help them escape from law enforcement are usually the cases that involves quasi terrorism. Terrorism is not the goal, but the law breaker acts in similar manner to a terrorist. Quasi terrorism uses the same kind of techniques as genuine terrorism to produce the same consequences and reaction, but does not make the main purpose to induce terror with the immediate victim like genuine terrorism does.
Limited Political Terrorism -
Limited political terrorism are acts that are most usually one time plots to make an ideological or political statement. To protest a governmental action or policy is the goal but not to overthrow the government. Meaning that their motives are only for ideological or political, and not to campaign to overcome control of the state.
State Terrorism -
State terrorism achieves a specific goal by using any violent action initiated by an existing government. This goal involves a conflict with another country most often. State terrorism is also referred to as structural terrorism, often a part of their foreign policy, terrorists acts carry out by governments in pursuit of political objectives.
Every type of terrorism gets their message across using distinct methods of violence. These methods can be anything from assault weapons or explosive devices to toxic chemicals that are released into the air, all causing civilians to be at risk of some type of injury. At any time or place, these attacks can occur; this instills making terror and uncertainty into the general public an extremely effective method.
By: Jason Ackerman
An act of Bioterrorism is a deliberate release of a harmful agent such as; toxins, viruses, or bacteria intended to cause death or illness in humans, animals, or plants. Most biological agents are found in nature and are easy to mutate, alter, or weaponize to maximize toxicity. They can easily be spread through air, water, and food. Biological agents are a very effective way to spread hate, fear, and panic through-out an entire country. You can’t see, hear, or smell them, but they can wipe out major cities with ease. These agents are very popular with terrorists because they are relatively easy to obtain and start spreading disease and infection.
Bioterrorism can be dated back since Ancient Roman times. There has been evidence of Bio terroristic acts in most wars and conflicts. Today, many governments look at Biological agents as a way to aid their efforts. President Nixon stated, “Mankind already carries in its own hands too many of the seeds of its own destruction.” I think what he meant by his statement is that mankind has the ability to wipe out the face of the Earth with our Biological agents, and yet we still use these toxic agents against our enemies and visa-versa.
Personally, I think Bioterrorism is a very effective weapon, but at the same time I feel it is the most barbaric form of Terrorism. It’s very possibly the worst type of terrorism, and yet our society continues to use Bioterrorism against each other.
MUST THERE BE NO PEACE?!?
Content on Tab No. 4.
THE LINK TO TERROR
It has long been held in multiple circles that American Imperialism is the reason this country is often the target for terrorist attacks. But what is “imperialism”? Imperialism, as defined by The Dictionary of Human Geography, is "the creation and maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination." Now, what the heck does that mean?
It would seem at first blush that imperialism would be anathema to the American system of beliefs. The country was established as a colony of another imperialistic entity, Great Britain. It has often been seen throughout history that societies spring up that wish to conquer and control far-flung reaches of the world well outside their own geographical borders. This was a time-honored method of bringing wealth, power, population, and territory under the control of these ambitious societies. Obviously, not everyone was going to be satsified with the effects. Conquered peoples could find themselves in slavery, their natural resources plundered, their ability to determine their own way of life permanently altered. It was against this very fate that the people of the early British colonies revolted, creating instead an independent nation. So how did we become the bad guys?
America never lacked the appetite for land or influence. After our Civil War, we struggled through Reconstruction and Industrialization and raced towards our own western coast. What we couldn't annex, we either bought (the Louisiana Purchase) or fought for (The U.S.-Mexican War (1846-1848)). We adopted the concept of “Manifest Destiny”; that is, a belief that the US has a god given right to expand its territory from coast to coast. Then we looked farther. Toward the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries, we pursued an aggressive policy of expanding our influence throughout the Pacific, and the world. As we became involved in WWI and WWII, our military influence was expanded to bases on foreign lands where they remain today.
But should this make us the target of the kind of hatred that drives terrorist attacks? Our methods certainly haven't always been the most savory. Yet following the addition of Hawaii as the 50th state (admitted - August 21, 1959), http://www.hawaiiscene.com/50thState.htm, the United States has not extended her borders a single time. We are involved in multiple “conflicts” at any given time. Grenada, the Iran-Contra scandal, Kuwait, Afghanistan, Libya, the list does become extensive. We are criticized for being involved in countries where there are human rights abuses and criticized as well for not being involved in countries where there are human rights abuses.
Withdrawing inside our own borders and adopting an attitude of isolationism will not have the desired effect of mollifying the hatred that is directed toward us. The values we espouse, the relative abundance we enjoy, the peace and security upon which we insist…..these will long be targets for other idealogies. American Imperialism makes a handy scapegoat, but is demonstrably not the primary reason for anti-American terrorism.
Terrorism is a big problem in the world that has cost many people’s lives. The people in the world that have power, are still trying to fix this problem in the world. Terrorist have breeding grounds all over the world, the people are trying to fix this by destroying their breeding grounds.
World leaders are to hold a summit in London to discuss ways of stopping Yemen becoming a terrorist breeding ground after it emerged that the Detroit bomber met al-Qaeda within months of his arrival in the country.
The White House said that United States President Barack Obama had given his support to the talks, which will run alongside a conference on Afghanistan planned for the same day.
Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, the 23-year-old Nigerian who allegedly attempted to detonate a bomb on an aeroplane flying over the US city of Detroit on Christmas Day, is said to have told investigators from the FBI that he was radicalised and trained in Yemen within the last six months.
There had been concerns on both sides of the Atlantic that he could have been part of a network of Islamic extremists in the United Kingdom after it emerged that he had spent three years at university in London.
Whitehall insiders said that intelligence indicated that Abdulmutallab had begun to have “an interest” in radical Islam while in London.
This had escalated rapidly after he was refused permission to return to London, having applied to a bogus college, and instead arrived in Yemen in August to study at the Sana'a Institute for the Arabic Language, where he was put in touch with al-Qaeda within a few months of his arrival.
Mr Brown has also ordered a review of airport security following the Detroit incident, including the possibility of full body scanners that could detect explosives of the kind smuggled on to the Detroit-bound plane from Amsterdam.
"Labour have serious questions to answer on their slow response to the security issues which were apparent long before the Christmas Day bomb plot."
Louise Ellman, Labour chairman of the cross-party Commons Transport Committee, called on ministers to "inject a new urgency" into the fight to keep ahead of the terrorists, and suggested that Abdulmutallab had developed “undesirable” associates while a student in London.
She told the BBC: "I certainly feel very uneasy about what happened and I think there is some evidence that the person who attempted to explode the plane may have had some very undesirable associates when he was a student in London.
"I think that is one of the areas that need further investigation. We mustn't be complacent about people who spread the message of terrorism."
Although world leaders are doing their part in fixing the breeding grounds of world terrorism, we still have a long way to go. Terrorism is the biggest problem worldwide. Our president is having meetings but I feel as an American we can do a lot more. I think we are on the right track to fixing these problems as a whole in the human race.
by Daniel Bolte
Content on tab no. 5
Since September 11, 2001, the United States has invested vast resources in terrorism. Why does it happen? Who perpetrates it? Where might it occur next? One of the issues being addressed is what kinds of terrorism are possible. Are there methods we haven't considered, available to those who wish to do us harm? In the immortal words of Donald Rumsfeld; “"Unfortunately, history shows that it can take a tragedy like 9/11 to awaken the world to a new threat.” http://www.museworld.com/archives/001337.html.
One possible new avenue of attack that has been identified is our food supply. Effectively attacking it could make the casualties of 9/11 seem like a pittance. This method of attack is referred to as “agro-terrorism”. It is defined as "the malicious use of plant or animal pathogens to cause devastating disease in the agricultural sector. It may also take the form of hoaxes and threats intended to create public fear of such events" http://www.investorideas.com/companies/homelanddefense/News/Agriterrorism.asp. So, now that we have identified what it is, the next question is, how could it happen?
The answer is frightening. There is such a diverse variety of methods by which our agricultural sector could come under attack that the possibilities are almost overwhelming. Tommy Thompson, when he stepped down as Health Secretary in 2004, said "I, for the life of me, cannot understand why the terrorists have not attacked our food supply, because it is so easy to do.” It has been noted that in the event of an agro-terrorism attack, the simple act of drinking milk could become a fatal exerccise. “About a third of an ounce of botulism toxin poured by bioterrorists into a milk truck en route from a dairy farm to a processing plant could cause hundreds of thousands of deaths and billions of dollars in economic losses, according to a scientific analysis that was published yesterday despite efforts by federal officials to keep the details secret. “ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/06/28/AR2005062801330.html .
The various methods by which an agro-terrorism attack could be accomplished are being carefully researched. Even providing they could all be identified, another very large question remains. How can the United States prevent such an attack and maintain the safety of her food supply? The Rand National Defense Institute has examined that question, and come up with a list of recommendations;
Conducting a comprehensive needs analysis to determine appropriate investment requirements for the federal emergency management infrastructure.
1. Increasing the number of state and local personnel with the skills to identify and treat exotic foreign animal diseases.
2. Assessing how to foster more coordinated and standardized links between the U.S. agricultural and intelligence communities.
3. Focusing attention on issues of law enforcement and the use of forensic investigations to determine whether disease outbreaks are deliberate or naturally occurring.
4. Revisiting the effectiveness of the passive (voluntary) disease reporting system, especially in providing more consistency with indemnity payments to compensate farmers for destroyed livestock.
5. Evaluating surveillance, internal quality control, and emergency response at food processing and packing plants to weigh the immediate costs of improving biosecurity against the long-term benefits of instituting those upgrades.
The same Institute has also brought us the good news. Despite the ease of attack, agro-terrorism is unlikely to be a primary source of terrorist aggression in the near future, because it lacks a single-point media focus. Getting one's idealogies in the news is, after all, a primary consideration for any terrorist organization. With continued research, it is hoped that prevention will out-pace the ability of the food supply to offer that media attention to those who want us dead.
The Future of Terrorism
Osama bin Laden has been killed, but the hunt is still on for remaining leaders of al-Qaida and the other terrorist groups who continue to pose a threat to Americans. Bin Laden appeared at the top of both the FBI’s list of the 30 most wanted terrorists and its list of 10 most wanted fugitives. He became Public Enemy No. 1 after the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, which he masterminded. “No one can replace bin Laden in stature and cult-like status and name recognition. It’s unlikely that’s going to happen,” said Rick Nelson, director of the homeland security and counterterrorism program at the Center for Strategic & International Studies. Still, there are many suspected terrorists who are key to al-Qaida and other anti-American organizations, and who could prove extremely dangerous to the United States and its citizens. Some experts say that the death of bin Laden could spur reprisal attacks from his followers. “The terrorists almost certainly will attempt to avenge him, and we must — and will — remain vigilant and resolute,” Leon Pannetta, the director of the Central Intelligence Agency, said in a statement Monday.
By Caleb Fox
Counterterrorism is defined as the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, military and police adopt to prevent or in response to terrorist threats and or acts. Building a counter-terrorism plan involves all segments of a society or many government agencies. In dealing with foreign terrorists, the lead responsibility is usually at the national level. Because propaganda lies at the core of terrorism, understanding their profile and functions increases the ability to counter terrorism more effectively. Most counterterrorism tactics involve a increase of domestic intellgence. The central activities are traditional intercepting communications between terrorist and there organzations, or tracking a certain individual. Domestic intelligence is often directed at specific groups, defined on the basis of origin or religion, which is a source of political controversy. Mass surveillance of an entire population raises objections on civil liberties grounds. To select the effective action when terrorism appears to be more of an isolated event, the appropriate government organizations need to understand the source, motivation, methods of preparation, and tactics of terrorist groups. Good intelligence is at the heart of such preparation, as well as political and social understanding of any grievances that might be solved. Ideally, one gets information from inside the group, a very difficult challenge because operational terrorist cells are often small, with all members known to one another, perhaps even related. As for the legal side of all of this here is what they say are response to growing legislation:
o U.S. legal issues surrounding this issue include rulings on the domestic employment of by Deadly force law enforcement organizations.
o Search and seizure is governed by the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
o The US passed the USA PATRIOT Act after the 9/11 attacks, as well as a range of other legislation and executive orders.
o The Department of Homeland Security was established to consolidate domestic security agencies to coordinate anti-terrorism, as well as national response to major natural disasters and accidents.
o The Posse Comitatus Act limits domestic employment of the United States Army, requiring Presidential approval prior to deploying the Army. Pentagon policy also applies this limitation to the United States Marine Corps, United States Navy, and United States Air Force. The Department of Defense can be employed domestically on Presidential order, as was done during the Los Angeles riots of 1992, Hurricane Katrina and the Beltway Sniper incidents.
o External or international use of lethal force would require a Presidential finding.
Response to legislation citied from- www.state.gov/s/ct/
By Brandi Williams
Counterterrorism is the tactics, strategies, techniques, and practices that militaries, police departments, governments, and corporations adopt in response to terrorist threats and/or acts, both real and assigned.
Objectives of Counterterrorism -
There is an objective in the war on terror for each US Government agency that is involved in counterterrorism. To help dismantle terrorist and to neutralize terrorist cells and operatives here in the U.S. is the FBI mission. There are numerous agencies in the U.S. that have authority to combat terrorism including the CIA, Department of Homeland Security, FBI, and the State Department. The National Counterterrorism Center objective is to direct and integrate the formidable capabilities of the United States Government dedicated to overcoming the threat of international terrorism. Another objective is to reduce the threat to United States interests abroad and at home.
To help out our nation prevent acts of terrorism against the U.S. and U.S. targets is the mission of the Counterterrorism Division. The Counterterrorism Division has many priorities. If an individual is acting alone with a terrorist agenda it is the Division’s priority to identify and prevent these acts. Detect, disrupt, and dismantle terrorist sleeper cells that are in the U.S. before the terrorists can act is also another priority of the Counterterrorism Division.
How Counterterrorism Works -
Making citizens safer from terrorist threats through screening of airline passengers’, placing metal detectors and video cameras in public places, random patrols of bomb-sniffing dogs, etc. is the first out of two aspects of counterterrorism. The second aspect is neutralization of terrorists through assassinations, arrests, prosecutions, military actions, raids on terrorist facilities, etc. By making the U.S. a “harder target”, counterterrorism cover threat reduction. They are also actively “going after” terrorists.
Counterterrorism Decision-making -
All agencies involved in counterterrorism make effective action a challenge. In fact, law enforcement and intelligence agencies took a lot of criticism after 9/11 for failing to give information that may have possibly prevented the attacks on Washington and New York. Involved in the counterterrorism program is the Department of Homeland Security, Department of Justice, The White House, FBI, state/local authorities, State Department, CIA, and Transportation Security Agency.
Intelligence sharing reportedly improved after the attacks on Washington and New York, but it has regressed experts say. One reason for this is because creating compatible computer databases for different agencies is proven very difficult. Blocking efforts to automate intelligence sharing make many agency databases to not interact good with one another.
The State Department’s Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism is responsible for coordinating and supporting the development and implementation of all U.S. Government policies and programs that are aimed to counter terrorism overseas. At the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) is where the planning and execution of counterterrorism programs and policies. Established by Presidential Executive Order 13354 In August 2004 and codified by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA), The National Counterterrorism Center carry out a key recommendation of the 9/11 Commission.
An Ongoing War
By William Vasbinder
More than ten years after the attacks of Sept 11, 2001, the war against terrorism continues. Even as America turns its attention to other affairs such as the economy, politics, and other agendas, terrorism still remains an ongoing war.
Al-Qaeda’s resurgence came despite damage to its highest echelon. Training director Mohammed Atef of Egypt, was believed to have been killed Nov 13, 2001, in a U.S. bomb raid near Kabul, and the man believed to be his successor, Abu Zubaydah, a Palestinian born in Saudia Arabia, had been captured March 28, 2002, in Pakistan and detained for questioning by the U.S. It seems that Al-Qaeda’s leader Osama bin Laden escaped alive.
The war on terrorism in Afghanistan resulted in the overthrow of Taliban rule and the installation of a functioning government, with a mission to rebuild the country. At home Americans sought to honor the hero’s and victims of the 2001 attack, rebuild the sites damaged by the hijackers, revive the economy, and determine why the U.S. intelligence and law enforcement agencies had been unable to prevent the terrorist acts that killed more than 3000 people.
A crucial question confronting Congress was whether the government intelligence and law enforcement could have anticipated and prevented the attacks. The initial report noted that funds were not allocated to the FBI to fight terrorism.
At home and overseas the Bush administration tightened security. Legislation signed by President Bush on Nov 19, 2001, authorized a federal force to screen passengers and baggage at major airports, increased the number of sky marshalls, and improved cockpit security. On Mar 12, 2002, Homeland Security Director Tom Ridge unveiled a five step, color coded alert system ranging from green (low risk) to red (severe risk)
On June 6, 2002, President Bush proposed the creation of a new cabinet level Department of Homeland Security, employing about 22 different agencies with about 170,000 employees. Included in the new department would be the INS, the Coast Guard, the Secret Service, the Customs Service, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, along with the Transportation Security Administration. The proposal, the most ambitious executive branch reorganization since the creation of the Department of Defense in the 1940’s.
Another approach to securing the homeland was cutting off the flow of funds to terrorists. According the U.S. State Department, more than 160 countries froze assets to suspected terrorist organizations. A U.N. report leaked to the Washington Post suggested that 100 million dollars had been blocked from terrorist in 3 months of work.
Terrorism will exists as it always has, but learning to fight and prevent it is key to silencing their political hopes and violent antics. The American government along with many other countries have tightened security and became more aware of the “terror” of terrorists.
http://infotrac.galegroup.com/itweb Copyright 2003 World Almanac Educational Group Geoffrey M. Horn, freelance writer and editor
Documentary Film about global security and international travel planning and expectations.